Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 43, Issue 10, pp 1715–1727

Prospective Links Between Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic and American Identity, and Well-Being Among Asian-American Adolescents

Empirical Research

DOI: 10.1007/s10964-013-0044-0

Cite this article as:
Gartner, M., Kiang, L. & Supple, A. J Youth Adolescence (2014) 43: 1715. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-0044-0


Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58 % female; 25 % first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them.


Ethnic socialization American identity Ethnic identity Well-being Asian-American 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.The University of North Carolina-GreensboroGreensboroUSA

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