Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 1789–1800 | Cite as

Divergence in Self- and Peer-Reported Victimization and its Association to Concurrent and Prospective Adjustment

  • Ron H. J. Scholte
  • William J. Burk
  • Geertjan Overbeek
Empirical Research

Abstract

Previous studies on victimization have either used self-reports of peer-reports, but correspondence between these measures is low, implying that types of victims may exist that differ in convergence between self- and peer-reported victimization. Importantly, the very few studies that do exist on such types were cross-sectional, and did not address the stability nor predictive validity in terms of adjustment of these types. Using a person-centered approach, the present study identified types of victims that were either convergent or divergent in self- and peer-reported victimization, and examined how these types differed in concurrent and prospective adjustment. Participants were 1,346 adolescents (50 % girls, mean age 14.2) who were followed for 1 year. Using Latent Profile Analysis, we identified two convergent types (self-peer identified victims and non-victims) and two divergent types (self-identified and peer-identified) of victims. The types were highly stable over time. Self-peer identified victims were not only concurrently but also prospectively the least well adjusted. Self-identified victims showed lower levels of emotional adjustment but did not show problems on social adjustment. On the other hand, peer-identified victims were at risk for social but not emotional maladjustment. The findings corroborate previous studies that suggest that self-reported victimization is related to emotional problems, while peer-reported victimization is more indicative of social problems. The findings also suggest that using self-reports or peer-reports only may lead to incomplete conclusions about victims’ adjustment on different domains.

Keywords

Victimization Multi-informant Self-reports Peer-reports Adjustment 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, J., & Cote, S. (2005). Sex differences in aggressive behavior. In R. E. Tremblay, W. W. Hartup, & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression (pp. 425–443). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 212–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arseneault, L., Bowes, L., & Shakoor, S. (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: ‘Much ado about nothing’? Psychological Medicine, 40, 717–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergman, L. R., Magnusson, D., & El-Khouri, B. M. (2003). Studying individual development: A person-oriented approach. In D. Magnusson (Series Ed.), Paths through life (Vol. 4, pp. 24–148). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boivin, M., & Hymel, S. (1997). Peer experiences and social self-perceptions: A sequential model. Developmental Psychology, 33, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollmer, J. M., Milich, R., Harris, M. J., & Maras, M. A. (2005). A friend in need: The role of friendship quality as protective factor in peer victimization and bullying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 701–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. (2011). Jaarboek onderwijs in cijfers 2011. [Statistics Netherlands (2011). Yearbook education in numbers 2011.] Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/FC6D3388-0F9E-4129-8F2B-53022BA3F774/0/2011f162pub.pdf.
  11. Chang, L. (2004). The role of classroom norms in contextualizing the relations of children’s social behaviors to peer acceptance. Developmental Psychology, 40, 691–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crick, N. R., & Bigbee, M. A. (1998). Relational and overt forms of peer victimization: A multiinformant approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 337–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Los Reyes, A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2004). Applying depression-distortion hypotheses to the assessment of peer victimization in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 325–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dempsey, J. P., Fireman, G. D., & Wang, E. (2006). Transitioning out of peer victimization in school children: Gender and behavioral characteristics. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28, 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Due, P., & Holstein, B. E. (2008). Bullying victimization among 13 to 15 year old school children: Results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20, 209–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eslea, M., Menesini, E., Morita, Y., O’Moore, M., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Pereira, B., et al. (2003). Friendship and loneliness among bullies and victims: Data from seven countries. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giang, M. T., & Graham, S. (2008). Using latent class analysis to identify aggressors and victims of peer harassment. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 203–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (1998). Self-blame and peer victimization in middle school: An attributional analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34, 587–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41, 441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hodges, E. V. E., & Perry, D. G. (1999). Personal and interpersonal antecedents and consequences of victimization by peers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 677–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hymel, S., Wagner, E., & Butler, L. J. (1990). Reputational bias: View from the peer group. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 156–186). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jiang, X. L., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2005). Stability of continuous measures of sociometric status: A meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 25, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., & Wardrop, J. L. (2001). Chronicity and instability of children’s peer victimization experiences as predictors of loneliness and social satisfaction trajectories. Child Development, 72, 134–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization: Distinct relational systems that contribute uniquely to children’s school adjustment? Child Development, 68, 1181–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ladd, G. W., & Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2002). Identifying victims of peer aggression from early to middle childhood: Analysis of cross-informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization, and characteristics of identified victims. Psychological Assessment, 14, 74–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lo, Y., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lovegrove, P. J., Henry, K. L., & Slater, M. D. (2012). Examination of the predictors of latent class typologies of bullying involvement among middle school students. Journal of School Violence, 11, 75–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marcoen, A., Goossens, L., & Claes, P. (1987). Loneliness in pre- through late adolescence: Exploring the contributions of a multidimensional approach. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 561–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Hilt, L. M. (2009). Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer victimization to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 894–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2006). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  33. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1983). Social impact and social preference as determinants of children’s peer group status. Developmental Psychology, 19, 856–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007a). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A monte carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nylund, K., Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2007b). Subtypes, severity, and structural stability of peer victimization: What does latent class analysis say? Child Development, 78, 1706–1722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olweus, D. (1989). The Olweus Bully/victim Questionnaire. Bergen, Norwegen: Mimeo.Google Scholar
  38. Österman, K., Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Kaukiainen, A., Huesmann, L. R., & Fraczek, A. (1994). Peer and self-estimated aggression and victimization in 8-year-old children from five ethnic groups. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 411–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pellegrini, A. D., Bartini, M., & Brooks, F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: Factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 26–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pellegrini, A. D., & Long, J. D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary to secondary school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 259–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Putallaz, M., Grimes, C. L., Foster, K. J., Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dearing, K. (2007). Overt and relational aggression and victimization: Multiple perspectives within the school setting. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 523–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rosen, P. J., Milich, R., & Harris, M. J. (2007). Victims of their own cognitions: Implicit social cognitions, emotional distress, and peer victimization. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M., & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The Investment Model Scale: Measuring commitment level, satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Personal Relationships, 5, 357–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salmivalli, C. (2002). Is there an age decline in victimization by peers at school? Educational Research, 44, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schäfer, M., Werner, N. E., & Crick, N. R. (2002). A comparison of two approaches to the study of negative peer treatment: General victimization and bully/victim problems among German schoolchildren. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 281–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scholte, R. H. J., Engels, R. C. M. E., Overbeek, G., de Kemp, R. A. T., & Haselager, G. J. M. (2007). Stability in bullying and victimization and its association with social adjustment in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 217–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scholte, R. H. J., Overbeek, G., ten Brink, G., Rommes, E., de Kemp, R. A. T., Goossens, L., et al. (2009). The significance of reciprocal and unilateral friendships for peer victimization in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 89–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sentse, M., Scholte, R. H. J., Salmivalli, C., & Voeten, M. (2007). Person-group dissimilarity in involvement in bullying and its relation with social status. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 1009–1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stassen Berger, K. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wienke Totura, C. M., Green, A. E., Karver, M. S., & Gesten, E. L. (2009). Multiple informants in the assessment of psychological, behavioral, and academic correlates of bullying and victimization in middle school. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 193–211.Google Scholar
  53. Williford, A. P., Brisson, D., Bender, K. A., Jenson, J. M., & Forrest-Bank, S. (2011). Patterns of aggressive behavior and peer victimization from childhood to early adolescence: A latent class analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 644–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ron H. J. Scholte
    • 1
  • William J. Burk
    • 1
  • Geertjan Overbeek
    • 2
  1. 1.Behavioural Science InstituteRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Developmental PsychologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations