Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 1775–1788 | Cite as

Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

  • Guadalupe EspinozaEmail author
  • Nancy A. Gonzales
  • Andrew J. Fuligni
Empirical Research


School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains.


Bullying Peer victimization Adolescence Mexican-American students Daily methods 



This research was supported by funding through the National Institute of Child and Human Development (R01HD057164). We would like to thank Dr. Thomas Weisner for his feedback on the manuscript and the school principals, teachers and students for their participation in this project.

GE: participated in the design and coordination of the study, performed statistical analyses, drafted initial manuscript, primarily authored the manuscript. NG: acquisition of funding, conceived of the study, participated in the design and coordination of the study, provided feedback on drafts of manuscript. AF: acquisition of funding, conceived of the study, participated in the design and coordination of the study, assisted with interpretation of data, provided feedback on drafts of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


  1. Almeida, D. M., Wethington, E., & McDonald, D. A. (2001). Daily variation in paternal engagement and negative mood: Implications for emotionally supportive and conflictual interactions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 417–429. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00417.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azmitia, M., Cooper, C. R., & Brown, J. R. (2009). Support and guidance from families, friends, and teachers in Latino early adolescents’ math pathways. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(1), 142–169. doi: 10.1177/0272431608324476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Protective factors as moderators of risk factors in adolescence bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 263–284. doi: 10.1007/s11218-005-5866-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber, B. K., & Olsen, J. A. (2004). Assessing the transitions to middle and high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 3–30. doi: 10.1177/0743558403258113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauman, S. (2008). The association between gender, age, and acculturation, and depression and overt and relational victimization among Mexican American elementary students. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 28(4), 528–554. doi: 10.1177/0272431608317609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauman, S., & Summers, J. J. (2009). Peer victimization and depressive symptoms in Mexican American middle school students: Including acculturation as a variable of interest. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31(4), 515–535. doi: 10.1177/0739986309346694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellmore, A. D., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2006). Reciprocal influences of victimization, perceived social preference, and self-concept in adolescence. Self and Identity, 5(3), 209–229. doi: 10.1080/15298860600636647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellmore, A. D., Witkow, M. R., Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (2004). Beyond the individual: The impact of ethnic context and classroom behavioral norms on victims’ adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 1159–1172. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2009). The transition to high school as a developmental process among multiethnic urban youth. Child Development, 80(2), 356–376. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkel, C., Knight, G. P., Zeiders, K. H., Tein, J., Roosa, M. W., Gonzales, N. A., et al. (2010). Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally related values. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(4), 893–915. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00668.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolger, N., Davis, A., & Rafaeli, E. (2003). Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 54, 579–616. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. British Medical Journal, 323, 480–484. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7311.480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Buhs, E. S. (2005). Peer rejection, negative peer treatment, and school adjustment: Self-concept and classroom engagement as mediating processes. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 407–424. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2005.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buhs, E. S., & Ladd, G. W. (2001). Peer rejection as an antecedent of young children’s school adjustment: An examination of mediating processes. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 550–560. doi: 10.1037//OO12-1649.37.4.550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chung, G. H., Flook, L., & Fuligni, A. J. (2009). Daily family conflict and emotional distress among adolescents from Latin American. Asian and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 45(5), 1406–1415. doi: 10.1037/a0014163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crick, N. E., Bigbee, M. A., & Howes, C. (1996). Gender differences in children’s normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. Child Development, 67(3), 1003–1014. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01779.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dodge, K. A. (2006). Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 791–814. doi: 10.10170S0954579406060391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dumka, L. E., Gonzales, N. A., Bonds, D. D., & Millsap, R. E. (2009). Academic success of Mexican origin adolescent boys and girls: The role of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting and cultural orientation. Sex Roles, 60, 588–599. doi: 10.1007/s11199-008-9518-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Erath, S. A., Flangan, K. S., & Bierman, K. L. (2008). Early adolescent school adjustment: Associations with friendship and peer victimization. Social Development, 17(4), 853–870. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00458.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I. M., Fredriks, A. M., Vogels, T., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2006). Do bullied children get ill, or do ill children get bullied? A prospective cohort study on the relationship between bullying and health-related symptoms. Pediatrics, 117, 1568–1574. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fitzpatrick, K. M., Dulin, A., & Piko, B. (2010). Bullying and depressive symptomatology among low-income, African-American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 634–645. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9426-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fuligni, A. J., & Masten, C. L. (2010). Daily family interactions among young adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European backgrounds. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(6), 491–499. doi: 10.1177/0165025409360303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148–162. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. García Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., García, H. V., et al. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891–1914. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01834.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2009). Association between bullying and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 123, 1059–1065. doi: 0.1542/peds.2008-1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzales, N. A., Germán, M., Kim, S. Y., George, P., Fabrett, F., Millsap, R., et al. (2008). Mexican American adolescents’ cultural orientation, externalizing behavior and academic engagement: The role of traditional cultural values. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(1-2), 151–164. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9152-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Graham, S. (2006). Peer victimization in school: Exploring the ethnic context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 317–321. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00460.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Han, W. (2008). The academic trajectories of children of immigrants and their school environments. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1572–1590. doi: 10.1037/a0013886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanish, L. D., & Guerra, N. G. (2000). The roles of ethnicity and school context in predicting children’s victimization by peers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(2), 201–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1005187201519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hill, N. E., Bush, K. R., & Roosa, M. W. (2003). Parenting and family socialization strategies and children’s mental health: Low-income Mexican-American and Euro-American mothers and children. Child Development, 74(1), 189–204. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hill, N. E., & Torres, K. (2010). Negotiating the American dream: The paradox of aspirations and achievement among Latino students and engagement between their families and schools. Journal of Social Issues, 66(1), 95–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01635.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huynh, V. W., & Fuligni, A. J. (2010). Discrimination hurts: The academic, psychological, and physical well-being of adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(4), 916–941. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00670.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Joiner, T. E., Perez, M., Wagner, K. D., Berenson, A., & Marquina, G. S. (2001). On fatalism, pessimism, and depressive symptoms among Mexican-American and other adolescents attending an obstetrics-gynecology clinic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 887–896. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00062-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Juvonen, J., Graham, S., & Schuster, M. A. (2003). Bullying among young adolescents: The strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics, 112, 1231–1237. doi: 10.1542/peds.112.6.1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Juvonen, J., Wang, Y., & Espinoza, G. (2011). Bullying experiences and compromised academic performance across middle school grades. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(1), 152–173. doi: 10.1177/0272431610379415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaufman, P., Chen, X., Choy, S. P., Ruddy, S. A., Miller, A. K., Chandler, K. A., et al. (1999). Indicators of school crime and safety (NCES 1999-057/NCJ-178906). Washington, DC: Departments of Education and Justice.Google Scholar
  39. Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer victimization: Cause or consequence of school maladjustment. Child Development, 67, 1305–1317. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01797.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). Victimized children’s responses to peers’ aggression: Behaviors associated with reduced versus continued victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 59–73. doi: 10.1017/S0954579497001065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kohler, A., & Lazarín, M. (2007). Hispanic education in the United States. Washington, DC: National Council of La Raza.Google Scholar
  42. Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent peer status and aggression as predictors of externalizing behavior problems in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 1350–1362. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02866.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 274–305). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. La Greca, A. M., & Harrison, H. M. (2005). Adolescent peer relations, friendships, and romantic relationships: Do they predict social anxiety and depression? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 49–61. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laurenceau, J., Barrett, L. F., & Rovine, M. J. (2005). The interpersonal process model of intimacy in marriage: A daily-dairy approach and multilevel modeling approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 314–323. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.2.314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lehman, B. J., & Repetti, R. L. (2007). Bad days don’t end when the school bell rings: The lingering effects of negative school events on children’s mood, self-esteem, and perceptions of parent-child interaction. Social Development, 16, 596–618. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00398.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lorr, M., & McNair, D. M. (1971). The profile of mood states manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
  48. MacKinnon, D. P., Fritz, M. S., Williams, J., & Lockwood, C. M. (2007). Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODCLIN. Behavioral Research Methods, 39, 1–12. doi: 10.3758/BF03193007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marín, G., & Marín, B. V. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  50. Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1986). Ethnic identities and patterns of school success and failure among Mexican-descent and Japanese-American students in a California high school: An ethnographic analysis. American Journal of Education, 95, 233–255. doi: 10.1086/444298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKenney, K. S., Pepler, D., Craig, W., & Connolly, J. (2006). Peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment: The experiences of Canadian immigrant youth. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(4), 239–264.Google Scholar
  52. Mehan, H., Villanueva, I., Hubbard, L., & Lintz, A. (1996). Constructing school success: The consequences of untracking low-achieving students. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Menesini, E., Modena, M., & Tani, F. (2009). Bullying and victimization in adolescence: Concurrent and stable roles and psychological health symptoms. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 170(2), 115–133. doi: 10.3200/GNTP.170.2.101-114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nakamoto, J., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Is peer victimization associated with academic achievement? A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 19, 221–242. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00539.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nakamoto, J., & Schwartz, D. (2011). The association between peer victimization and functioning at school among urban Latino children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 89–97. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2011.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US Youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of American Medical Assocition, 285(16), 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. National High School Center, American Institutes for Research. (2007). Approaches to dropout prevention: Heeding early warning signs with appropriate interventions. Retrieved from
  58. Naylor, P., Cowie, H., & del Rey, R. (2001). Coping strategies of secondary school children in response to being bullied. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 6, 114–120. doi: 10.1111/1475-3588.00333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neary, A., & Joseph, S. (1994). Peer victimization and its relationship to self-concept and depression among schoolgirls. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 183–186. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90122-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nishina, A., & Juvonen, J. (2005). Daily reports of witnessing and experiencing peer harassment in middle school. Child Development, 76(2), 435–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00855.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nishina, A., Juvonen, J., & Witkow, M. R. (2005). Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will make me feel sick: The psychosocial, somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 37–48. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olweus, D. (1996). Bullying at school: Knowledge base and an effective intervention program. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 794(1), 265–276. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb32527.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pepler, D. J., Carig, W. M., Connolly, J. A., Yuile, A., McMaster, L., & Jiang, D. (2006). A developmental perspective on bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32(4), 376–384. doi: 10.1002/ab.20136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pew Hispanic Research Center. (2011). Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2009. Retrieved from:
  65. Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. New York: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  66. Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM 6 for Windows [computer software]. Skokie, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
  67. Ream, R. K., & Rumberger, R. W. (2008). Student engagement, peer social capital, and school dropout among Mexican American and non-Latino White students. Sociology of Education, 81, 109–139. doi: 10.1177/003804070808100201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Repetti, R. L. (1996). The effects of perceived daily social and academic failure experiences on school-age children’s subsequent interactions with parents. Child Development, 67, 1467–1482. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01808.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (1999). Children, involvement in bully-victim problems, and perceived social support. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 29(2), 119–130. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.1999.tb01050.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Chen, Y. R. (1997). Ethnocultural differences in prevalence of adolescent depression. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 95–110. doi: 10.1023/A:1024649925737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., & Voeten, M. (2005). Anti-bullying intervention: Implementation and outcome. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 465–487. doi: 10.1348/000709905X26011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sapolsky, R. M. (2004). Social status and health in humans and other animals. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 393–418. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.144000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445. doi: 10.1037//1082-989X.7.4.422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, J. D., Schneider, B. H., Smith, P. K., & Ananiadou, K. (2004). The effectiveness of whole-school antibullying programs: A synthesis of evaluation research. School Psychology Review, 33(4), 547–560.Google Scholar
  75. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stone, S., & Han, M. (2005). Perceived school environments, perceived discrimination, and school performance among children of Mexican immigrants. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 51–66. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.08.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Strohmeier, D., Kärnä, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors for peer victimization in immigrant youth in Finland. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 248–258. doi: 10.1037/a0020785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Telzer, E. H., & Fuligni, A. J. (2009). Daily family assistance and the psychological well-being of adolescents from Latin American. Asian and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1177–1189. doi: 10.1037/a0014728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tharp-Taylor, S., Haviland, A., & D’Amico, E. J. (2009). Victimization from mental and physical bullying and substance use in early adolescence. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 561–567. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M., Whiteman, S. D., Thayer, S. M., & Delgado, M. Y. (2005). Adolescent sibling relationships in Mexican American families: Exploring the role of familism. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 512–522. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.4.512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). School enrollment. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  82. Wall, J. A., Power, T. G., & Arbona, C. (1993). Susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and its relation to acculturation in Mexican-American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(4), 403–418. doi: 0.1177/074355489384004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368–375. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wayman, J. C. (2002). Student perceptions of teacher ethnic bias: A comparison of Mexican- American and non-Latino white dropouts and students. The High School Journal, 85(3), 27–37. doi: 10.1353/hsj.2002.0006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 76–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.91.1.76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. West, S. G., Ryu, E., Kwok, O., & Cham, H. (2011). Multilevel modeling: Current and future applications in personality research. Journal of Personality, 79, 2–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00681.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guadalupe Espinoza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nancy A. Gonzales
    • 2
  • Andrew J. Fuligni
    • 3
  1. 1.UCLA Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations