Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives
- 3.1k Downloads
In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students’ senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
KeywordsAcademic achievement School dropout School policy Teacher evaluation Teacher reward
This article is a modified version of a paper presented at the Third Annual Sloboda-Bukoski Society for Prevention Research Cup Competition as part of Society for Prevention Research 17th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
- Alliance for Excellent Education. (2007). The high cost of high school dropouts: What the nation pays for inadequate high schools. Unpublished manuscript Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Baldi, S., Jin, Y., Skemer, M., Green, P. J., Herget, D. (2007). Highlights from PISA 2006: Performance of US 15-year-old students in science and mathematics literacy in an international context. National Center for education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Burns, L.J., Heuer, R., Ingels, S.J., Pollack, J.M., Pratt, D.J., Rock, D., Rogers, J., Scott, L.A., Siegel, P., Stutts, E. (2003). ELS: 2002 Base Year Field Test Report (NCES 2003-03). US Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Colby, S. A., Bradshaw, L. K., Joyner, R. L. (2002). Perceptions of teacher evaluation systems and their impact on school improvement, professional development and student learning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Hart, B., & Risley, R. T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.Google Scholar
- Heck, R. H., & Thomas, S. L. (2009). An introduction to multilevel modeling techniques (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hoffer, T. (1995). High school curriculum differentiation and postsecondary outcomes. Transforming schools, 98, 371–402.Google Scholar
- Hoffer, T. (1997). High school graduate requirements: Effects on dropping out and student achievement. The Teachers College Record, 98, 584–607.Google Scholar
- Ingels, S.J., Pratt, D.J., Rogers, J.E., Siegel, P.H., Stutts, E.S. (2005). Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base-Year to First Follow-up Data File Documentation (NCES 2006-344). US Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Lee, V. E. (2000). School size and the organization of secondary schools. In M. T. Hallinan (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of education (pp. 327–344). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
- Manefield, J., Collins, R., Moore, J., Mahar, S., Warne, C. (2007). Student voice: A historical perspective and new directions. Research and Innovation Division, Office of Learning and Teaching, Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Medley, D. M., & Coker, H. (1987). The accuracy of principals’ judgments of teacher performance. Journal of Educational Research, 80, 242–247.Google Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus User’s Guide (5th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthen and Muthen.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics, I. o. E. S., US Department of Education. (2010). Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ELS2002/.
- Noakes, L. A. (2009). Adapting the utilization-focused approach for teacher evaluation. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 6, 83–88.Google Scholar
- Obama, B. (2009). Remarks by the president to the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce on a complete and competitive American Education [Website]. The White House. Retrieved 21 April 2010, from the World Wide Web: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-of-the-President-to-the-United-States-Hispanic-Chamber-of-Commerce/.
- Planty, M., Hussar, W., Snyder, T., Kena, G., KewalRamani, A., Kemp, J., et al. (2009). The Condition of Education 2009. National Center for Education Statistics, Institue of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Podgursky, M. J., & Springer, M. G. (2007). Teacher performance pay: A review. Policy Retrospectives, 26, 909–949.Google Scholar
- Rumberger, R. W. (1987). High school dropouts: A review of issues and evidence. Review of Educational Research, 57, 101–121.Google Scholar
- Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to judgement: Teacher evaluation in public education. Washington, DC: Education Sector.Google Scholar
- Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R., & Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 933–1002). NewYork: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Wright, S. P., Horn, S. P., & Sanders, W. L. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student acheivement: Implecations for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 1, 57–67.Google Scholar