Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 39, Issue 6, pp 634–645

Bullying and Depressive Symptomatology Among Low-Income, African–American Youth

  • Kevin M. Fitzpatrick
  • Akilah Dulin
  • Bettina Piko
Empirical Research


Utilizing a risk and protective factors approach, this research examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptomatology, group membership (bully, victim, bully–victim) risks, and protection among a sample of African–American youths. Self-report data were collected in spring, 2002. Youth in grades 5–12 were sampled (n = 1,542; 51% female) from an urban school district in the Southeast. African–American youths self-identifying as bullies, victims, or bully–victims, reported higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to their nonbullied–nonvictimized counterparts. Additionally, multivariate results highlight a significant set of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptomatology, even after controlling for the effects of self-identified group membership. These findings further contribute to our general understanding of the interplay among bullying, victimization, risk and protective factors, and their effects on depressive symptoms among a group of understudied African–American youth.


Bullying Victimization Depressive symptoms African–American youth 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin M. Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • Akilah Dulin
    • 2
  • Bettina Piko
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral SciencesUniversity of SzegedSzegedHungary

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