Reducing Adolescents’ Perceived Barriers to Treatment and Increasing Help-seeking Intentions: Effects of Classroom Presentations by General Practitioners
- 546 Downloads
The Building Bridges to General Practice (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples’ perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing intentions, the BBGP program aims to increase actual consultations with a GP for both types of problem. A quasi-experimental nested design was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention in three Australian high schools. A Treatment group (n = 173, M = 16 years) and Comparison group (n = 118, M = 15 years) completed questionnaires of perceived barriers, intentions and self-reported consultations with a GP. Questionnaires were completed 1 week before the intervention, 5 then 10 weeks post-intervention. The Treatment group, but not the Comparison group, showed reductions in perceived barriers over time, increased intentions to consult a GP for psychological problems and a significant correlation between intentions and subsequent GP consultations. Results support the utility of the intervention for improving adolescents’ beliefs, intentions and behavior related to consulting a GP for physical and psychological problems.
KeywordsHelp seeking Health promotion Quasi-experimental evaluation Barriers
The authors wish to thank the following people for their substantial contribution to implementation of the BBGP program evaluated in the current trial: Beth Bignell, Janette Ellis, Helen Clancy; Dianne Young, Kathy Russell; Fiona Kyle; the Board of the Illawarra Division of General Practice, Members of the Illawarra Division of General Practice who presented the BBGP lessons; the School Counsellors and welfare staff who provided follow-up student support and the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing who provided infrastructure funds for ongoing program development. Additional thanks must also go to Beth Bignell and Janette Ellis for their invaluable research assistance throughout the project particularly in the data collection and data entry phases.
- Aisbett, D. L., Boyd, C. P., Francis, K. J., Newnham, K., & Newnham, K. (2007). Understanding barriers to mental health service utilization in rural Australia. Rural and Remote Health, 7, 624 (online). Retrieved July 30, 2007, from http://www.rrh.org.au.
- Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/∼aizen/AizenTpBQuest.pdf. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
- Andrews, G., Hall, W., Teesson, M., & Henderson, S. (1999). National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing Report 2: The Mental Health of Australians. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia: AusInfo.Google Scholar
- Davies, L., Sanci, L. A., & Hargreaves, B. (1999). Improving young people’s access to health care through general practice. A guide for general practitioners and Divisions of General Practice. Melbourne: Access SERU Department of General Practice and Public Health, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Donald, M., Dower, J., Lucke, J., & Raphael, B. (2000). The Queensland young peoples’ mental health survey report. Australia: Centre for Primary Health Care, School of Populations Health and Department of Psychiatry, University of Queensland. Brisbane.Google Scholar
- Health Advisory Service. (1995). Together we stand: Thematic review of the commissioning, role and management of child and adolescent mental health services. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
- Kalafat, J. (1997). Prevention of youth suicide. In R. P. Weissberg & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Healthy children 2010: Enhancing children’s wellness. Issues in children’s and families’ lives, 8 (pp. 175–213). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kalafat, J., & Elias, M. (1994). An evaluation of a school-based suicide awareness intervention. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 24, 224–233.Google Scholar
- Long, N. (2005). Child and adolescent mental health care in the primary healthcare system: Improving the interface. In Wren et al,, Tenth anniversary editorial. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 451–464.Google Scholar
- MaGPIe Research Group. (2004). Frequency of consultations and general practitioner recognition of psychological symptoms. British Journal of General Practice, 54, 838–842.Google Scholar
- MaGPIe Research Group. (2006). The treatment of common mental health problems in general practice. Family Practice, 23, 53–59.Google Scholar
- Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: Prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 552–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1986). Towards a comprehensive model of change. In: R. Miller & N. Heather (Eds.), Treating Addictive Behaviors. NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- Quine, S., Bernard, D., Booth, M., Kang, M., Usherwood, T., Alperstein, G., & Bennett, D. (2003). Health and Access issues among Australian adolescents: A rural-urban comparison. Rural and Remote Health, 3, 245 (online). Retrieved October 27, 2006, from http://rrh.deakin.edu.au/publishedarticles/article_print_245.pdf.
- Rickwood, D. J., Deane, F. P., & Wilson, C. J. (in press). When and how do young people seek professional help for mental health problems. The Medical Journal of Australia.Google Scholar
- Rickwood, D., Deane, F. P., Wilson, C. J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Help seeking for mental health problems in adolescence and early adulthood. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 4 (supplement). www.auseinet.com/journal/vol4iss3suppl/rickwood.pdf. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
- Rickwood, D. J, Wilson, C. J., & Deane, F. P. (2006). Supporting young people to seek professional help for mental health problems: Cover Feature. InPsyc: Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society, 28, August. www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/12.2_160.asp.
- Santor, D. A., Poulin, C., LeBlanc, J. C., & Kusumakar, V. (2007). Facilitating help seeking behavior and referrals for mental health difficulties in school aged boys and girls: A school-based intervention. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, DOI 10.1007/s10964–006-9092-z. Retrieved March 3, 2007.Google Scholar
- Sawyer, M. G., Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., Kosky, R. J., Nurcombe, B., Patton, G. C., Prior, M. R., Raphael, B., Rey, J., Whaites, L. C., & Zubrick, S. R. (2000). The mental health of young people in Australia. Canberra: Mental Health and Special Programs Branch, Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care.Google Scholar
- Wilson, C. J., Bignell, B., & Clancy, H. (2003). Building Bridges to General Practice: A controlled trial of the IDGP “GPs in Schools” program, first edition. PARC Special Issue: Youth Mental Health, 8, 19.Google Scholar
- Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., Biro, V., & Ciarrochi, J. (2003a). Youth barriers to help-seeking and referral from General Practitioners. (Research supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Grant YS060). Wollongong, NSW: Illawarra Division of General Practice & University of Wollongong, Illawarra Institute for Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., Ciarrochi, J., & Rickwood, D. (2005a). Measuring help seeking intentions: Properties of the General Help seeking Questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 39, 15–28.Google Scholar
- Wilson, C. J., Deane, F. P., & Fogarty, K. (2004). Building bridges to general practice: GPs in schools—participant manual, 2nd Ed. Wollongong, Australia: Illawarra Division of General Practice, 2004.Google Scholar
- Wilson, C. J., Fogarty, K., & Deane, F. P. (2002). The essential youth friendly GP kit. Wollongong, Australia: Illawarra Institute for Mental Health, University of Wollongong.Google Scholar
- Wilson, D. B., & Lipsey, M. W. (2004). The role of method in treatment effectiveness research: Evidence from meta-analysis. In: A. E. Kazdin, Methodological issues and strategies in clinical research, (3rd Ed.), (pp.589–615). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
- Wright, A., McGorry, P. D., Harris, M. G., Jorm, A. F., & Pennell, K. (2006). Development and evaluation of a youth mental health community awareness campaign—The compass strategy. BioMed Central Public Health, 6, 215. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/215.