Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs
- 2.1k Downloads
The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants’ cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of self-report instruments. Gender differences for subtypes of physical aggression were found. Impulsivity was associated with all subtypes of aggression. Results showed that reactive physical aggression was uniquely associated with hostile attribution biases for instrumental provocation situations. Reactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with hostile attribution biases for relational provocation scenarios. Findings indicated links between self-reported subtypes of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs of aggression. Ways in which this study extends the extant literature are discussed.
KeywordsRelational aggression Hostile attribution biases Normative beliefs Functions of aggression
We would like to thank Maureen Ballin, Christa Bishop, Audra Foote, Stephanie Godleski, Stacey Lampell, Kristen Muth, Becca Trager, Alyssa Tevens, and many other undergraduate and graduate students for their assistance with the collection, coding and data entry on this project. We thank Dr. Rebecca J. Houston for her assistance with this project. We thank Drs. J. Gayle Beck, Jennifer P. Read and Gretchen B. Sechrist for comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. We acknowledge the students who participated in this study.
This project was conducted in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Science with High Honors degree by the first author under the direction of the second author.
- Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Personality Processes and Individual Differences, 63, 452–459.Google Scholar
- Crick, N. R., Grotpeter, J. K., & Bigbee, M. A. (2002). Relationally and physically aggressive children’s intent attributions and feelings of distress for relational and instrumental peer conflicts. Child Development, 73, 1134–1142.Google Scholar
- Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler, & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 201–218). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719–788). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Dodge, K. A., Laird, R., Lochman, J. E., Zelli, A., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (2002). Multidimensional latent-construct analysis of children’s social information processing patterns: Correlations with aggressive behavior problems. Psychological Assessment, 14, 60–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huesmann, L. R., Guerra, N. G., Zelli, A., & Miller, L. (1992). Differing normative beliefs about aggression for boys and girls. In K. Björkqvist, & P. Niemelä (Eds.), Of mice and women: aspects of female aggression (pp. 77–87). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Leff, S. S., Angelucci, J., Goldstein, A. B., Cardaciotto, L., Paskewich, B., & Grossman, M. B. (2007). Using a participatory action research model to create a school-based Intervention program for relationally aggressive girls—The Friend to Friend Program. In J. E. Zins, M. J. Elias, & C. A. Maher (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peer harassment: A handbook of prevention and intervention (pp. 199–218). New York, NY: Hawthorn Press.Google Scholar
- Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36, 22–43.Google Scholar
- Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Liu, J. (2006). The reactive-proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 159–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar