Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 391–401

Implications of Out-of-School Activities for School Engagement in African American Adolescents

  • Aryn M. Dotterer
  • Susan M. McHale
  • Ann C. Crouter
Original Paper

Abstract

The connection between out-of-school activities and school engagement was examined in 140, 6th through 9th grade African American adolescents. Youth’s out-of-school activities were measured with a series of 7 nightly phone calls and focused on time in structured (homework, academically-oriented, extracurricular/sports) and unstructured (watching television, hanging out with peers) activities. School engagement was assessed during a home interview in terms of affective (school bonding), behavioral (school grades), and cognitive (school self-esteem) dimensions. Regression analyses controlling for parents’ education and youth grade in school showed that more time in extracurricular activities was associated with greater school self-esteem and school bonding. In addition, more time spent on homework was associated with greater school bonding for boys. Conversely, more time watching television was associated with lower school self-esteem and school bonding.

Keywords

Out-of-school activities School engagement African American adolescents Media 

References

  1. Aiken LS, West SG (1991) Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  2. Bianchi SM, Robinson J (1997) What did you do today? Children’s use of time, family composition, and the acquisition of social capital. J Marriage Fam 59:332–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Busseri MA, Rose-Krasnor L, Willoughby T, Chalmers H (2006) A longitudinal examination of breadth and intensity of youth activity involvement and successful development. Dev Psychol 42:1313–1326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Camp W (1990) Participation in student activities and achievement: A covariance structural analysis. J Educ Res 83:272–278Google Scholar
  5. Coleman JS (1961) The adolescent society. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Connell J, Spencer MB, Aber JL (1994) Educational risk and resilience in African American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in School. Child Dev 65:493–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooper H, Valentine JC, Nye B, Lindsay JJ (1999) Relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement. J Educ Psychol 91:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis-Kean PE (2005) The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental beliefs and the home environment. J Fam Psychol 19:294–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eccles JS, Barber BL (1999) Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? J Adolesc Res 14:10–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eccles JS, Barber BL, Stone M, Hunt J (2003) Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. J Soc Issues 59:865–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eccles JS, Lord S, Buchanan CM (1996) School transitions in early adolescence: What are we doing to our young people? In Graber J, Brooks-Gunn J, Petersen A (eds) Transitions through adolescence: Interpersonal domains and context. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferguson AA (2000) Bad boys: Public school in the making of black masculinity. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  13. Finn JD (1989) Withdrawing from school. Rev Educ Res 59:117–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finn JD, Rock DA (1997) Academic success among students at risk for school failure. J Appl Psychol 8:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fordham S, Ogbu J (1986) Black students’ school success: Coping with the “Burden of ‘Acting White.’” Urban Rev 18(3):176–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fredricks J, Blumenfeld P, Paris A (2004) School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Rev Educ Res 74:59–109Google Scholar
  17. Fredricks J, Eccles J (2006a) Extracurricular involvement and adolescent adjustment: Impact of duration, number of activities, and breadth of participation. Appl Dev Sci 10:132–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fredricks J, Eccles J (2006b) Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Dev Psychol 42:698–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerber S (1996) Extracurricular activities and academic achievement. J Res Dev Educ 30(1):42–50Google Scholar
  20. Gonzales N, Cauce AM, Friedman R, Mason C (1996) Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement of African American adolescents: One year prospective effects. Am J Community Psychol 24(3):365–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hare BR (1996) Hare General and Area-Specific Self-Esteem measure. In Jones Reginald (ed) Handbook of tests and measurements for black populations. Cobb and Henry, Hampton, VAGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirschi T (1969) Causes of delinquency. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  23. Holland A, Andre T (1987) Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known? Rev Educ Res 57:437–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jimerson S, Campos E, Greif J (2003) Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. Calif Sch Psychol 8:7–27Google Scholar
  25. Jordan W (1999) Black high school students’ participation in school-sponsored sports activities: Effects on school engagement and achievement. J Negro Educ 68:54–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jordan W, Nettles M (2000) How students invest their time outside of school: Effects on school-related outcomes. Sociol Psychol Educ 3:217–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson MK, Crosnoe R, Elder G (2001) Students’ attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociol Educ 74:318–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Larson R (1994) Youth organizations, hobbies, and sports as developmental contexts. In Silbereisen RK, Todt E (eds) Adolescence in context: The interplay of family, school, peers, and work in adjustment. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 46–65Google Scholar
  29. Larson R, Hansen D, Moneta G (2006) Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Dev Psychol 42:849–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Larson R, Verma S (1999) How children and adolescents spend time across the world: Work, play, and developmental opportunities. Psychol Bull 126:701–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mahoney J, Carins RB (1997) Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Dev Psychol 33:241–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mahoney J, Cairns RB, Farmer T (2003) Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. J Educ Psychol 93:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manlove J (1998) The influence of high school dropout and school disengagement on the risk of school-age pregnancy. J Educ Pscyhol 91:62–75Google Scholar
  34. Marsh HW (1992) Extracurricular activities: A beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or a subversion of academic goals? J Educ Psychol 84:553–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McHale SM, Crouter AC, Tucker CJ (2001) Free-time activities in middle childhood: Links with adjustment in early adolescence. Child Dev 72:1764–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McHale SM, Kim J, Whiteman SD, Crouter AC (2004) Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence. Dev Psychol 40:868–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Osgood DW, Wilson JK, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Johonston LD (1996) Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. Am Sociol Rev 61:635–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pedersen S (2005) Urban adolescents’ out-of-school activity profiles: Associations with youth, family, and school transition characteristics. Appl Dev Sci 9:107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Phinney J (1992) The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with adolescents and young adults from diverse groups. J Adolesc Res 7:156–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Posner JK, Vandell DL (1999) After school activities and the development of low-income children: A longitudinal study. Dev Psychol 35:868–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Powell DR, Peet SH, Peet CE (2002) Lower-income children’s academic achievement and participation in out-of-school activities in first grade. J Res Childhood Educ 16:202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schreiber J, Chambers E (2002) After-school pursuits, ethnicity, and achievement for 8th- and 10th-grade students. J Educ Res 96:90–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sirin SR, Sirin L (2005) Components of school engagement among African American adolescents. Appl Dev Sci 9:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sirin SR, Sirin L (2004) Exploring school engagement of middle-class African American adolescents. Youth Soc 35:322–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Updegraff KA, McHale SM, Whiteman SD, Thayer SM, Crouter AC (2006) The nature and correlates of Mexican-American adolescents’ time with parents and peers. Child Dev 77:1470–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Voelkl KE (1997) Identification with school. Am J Educ 105:294–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wong C, Rowley S (2001) The schooling of ethnic minority adolescents. Educ Psychol 36:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aryn M. Dotterer
    • 1
  • Susan M. McHale
    • 2
  • Ann C. Crouter
    • 2
  1. 1.Frank Porter Graham Child Development InstituteThe University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations