Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 169–183 | Cite as

A Growth Curve Analysis of the Joint Influences of Parenting Affect, Child Characteristics and Deviant Peers on Adolescent Illicit Drug Use

  • Paulo Pires
  • Jennifer M. Jenkins
Original Paper


This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY; N=2194) over 4 waves. Results indicated that parental rejection was positively related to drug use, whereas parental warmth was negatively related to it. Both effects were significant when child ADHD symptoms were taken into account. Parental rejection and warmth had differential effects over time. Deviant peer affiliations were positively associated with drug use, did not have a differential influence over time, and did not mediate the other effects. There was significant between-individual (level 2) variability in drug use. Results are discussed in light of adolescent perceptions of parent-child relationships.


Growth curve model Longitudinal Multilevel modeling Adolescent drug use Parenting affect ADHD symptomatology Deviant peers NLSCY 



The authors would like to thank Jon Rasbash for statistical guidance and Statistics Canada for access to the NLSCY data through the Research Data Centre at the University of Toronto. While the research and analyses are based on data from Statistics Canada, the opinions expressed do not represent the views of Statistics Canada. To access the microdata housed in the Research Data Centre, researchers must submit a project proposal to an adjudicating committee operating under the auspices of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and Statistics Canada.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Applied PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Applied PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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