Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 852–859

Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter Services

  • David E. Pollio
  • Sanna J. Thompson
  • Lisa Tobias
  • Donna Reid
  • Edward Spitznagel
Original Paper

Abstract

This research examined outcomes and use of specific types of services 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months post-discharge for a large sample of runaway/homeless youth using crisis shelter services. Data were collected for 371 runaway/homeless youth using emergency shelter and crisis services at eleven agencies across a four-state midwestern region. Outcomes were assessed for runaway behavior, family relationships, substance use, school behavior, employment, sexual behavior, and self-esteem. Additionally, the impact of services on outcomes was assessed. Findings indicated that although youth achieved a wide variety of positive outcomes 6 weeks post-discharge, there were signs of attenuation of certain outcomes by the 6 month follow-up. Service use after discharge did not demonstrate a strong impact on maintaining outcomes. The substantive findings reported here present encouraging evidence for providers of services for runaway/homeless youth. Crisis shelter services appear to facilitate broad-based short-term gains, but do not appear sufficient to maintain these gains over an extended period.

Keywords

Homeless/runaway youth Youth shelters Services Longitudinal methods Service use 

References

  1. Aviles A, Helfrich C (2004) Life skill service needs: Perspectives of homeless youth. J Youth Adolesc 33(4):331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooks RA, Milburn NG, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Witkin A (2004) The system-of-care for homeless youth: Perceptions of service providers. Eval Prog Plan 27:443–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cauce AM, Morgan CJ, Wagner J, Moore E, Sy J, Wurzbacher K et al.! (1994) Effectiveness of intensive case management for homeless adolescents: Results of a 3-month follow-up. J Emot Behav Disord 2(4):219–227Google Scholar
  4. Clatts MC, Davis WR, Sotheran JL, Atillasoy A (1998) Correlates and distribution of HIV risk behaviors among homeless youths in New York City: Implications for prevention and policy. Child Welfare 77(2):195–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. De Rosa CJ, Montgomery SB, Kipke MD, Iverson E, Ma JL, Unger JB (1999) Service utilization among homeless and runaway youth in Los Angeles, California: Rates and reasons. J Adolesc Health 24(6):449–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ennett ST, Federman E, Bailey SL, Ringwalt CL, Hubbard ML (1999) HIV-risk behaviors associated with homelessness characteristics in youth. J Adolesc Health 25(5):344–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farrow JA, Deisher RW, Brown R, Kulig JW, Kipke MD (1992) Health and health needs of homeless and runaway youth. A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 13(8):717–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greene JM, Ringwalt CL, Iachan R (1997) Shelters for runaway and homeless youths: Capacity and occupancy. Child Welfare 76(4):549–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Karabanow J, Clement P (2004) Interventions with street youth: A commentary on the practice-based research literature. Brief Treat Crisis Interv 4(1):93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kipke MD, Montgomery S, MacKenzie RG (1993) Substance use among youth seen at a community-based health clinic. J Adolesc Health 14(4):289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kipke MD, Montgomery SB, Simon TR, Iverson EF (1997) “Substance abuse” disorders among runaway and homeless youth. Subst Use Misuse 32(7/8):969–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumpfer KL, Alexander LB, McDonald L, Olds DL (1998) Family-focused substance abuse prevention: What has been learned from other fields (No. Monograph 177). National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  13. MacLean MG, Embry LE, Cauce AM (1999) Homeless adolescents’ paths to separation from family: Comparison of family characteristics, psychological adjustment, and victimization. J Community Psychol 27(2):179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mallett S, Rosenthal D, Myers P, Milburn N, Rotheram-Borus MJ (2004) Practising homelessness: A typology approach to young people’s daily routines. J Adolesc 27(3):337–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pollio DE, Thompson SJ, North CS (2000) Agency-based tracking of difficult-to-follow populations: Runaway and homeless youth programs in St. Louis, Missouri. Community Ment Health J 36(3):247–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ringwalt CL, Greene JM, Robertson MJ (1998) Familial backgrounds and risk behaviors of youth with thrownaway experiences. J Adolesc 21(3):241–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rubin DB (1987) Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Schafer JL (1997) Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Schafer JL (1999) NORM: Multiple imputation of incomplete multivariate data under a normal model, Version 2: Software for Windows 95/98/NTGoogle Scholar
  20. Slesnick N, Meade M, Tonigan J (2001) Relationship between service utilization and runaway youths’ alcohol and other drug use. Alcohol Treat Q 19(3):19–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Song J, Belin TR, Lee MB, Gao X, Rotheram-Borus MJ (2001) Handling baseline differences and missing items in a longitudinal study of HIV risk among runaway youthq. Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol 2(3/4):317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thompson SJ, Maguin E, Pollio DE (2003) National and regional differences among runaway youth using federally funded crisis shelters. J Soc Serv Res 30(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Thompson SJ, Pollio DE, Bitner L (2000) Outcomes for adolescents using runaway and homeless youth services. J Hum Behav Soc Environ 3(1):79–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thompson SJ, Pollio DE, Constantine J, Reid D, Nebbitt V (2002) Short-term outcomes for youths receiving runaway homeless shelter services. Res Soc Work Pract 12(5):589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thompson SJ, Safyer AE, Pollio DE (2001) Examining differences and predictors of family reunification among subgroups of runaway youth using shelter services. Soc Work Res 25(3):163–172Google Scholar
  26. Thornberry TP, Tolnay SE, Flanagan TJ, Glynn P (1991) Children custody 1987: A comparison of public and private juvenile custody facilities. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. Toro PA (1999) Advances in research on homelessness: An overview of the special issue. J Community Psychol 27(2):115–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Whitbeck LB, Hoyt DR, Ackley KA (1997a) Abusive family backgrounds and later victimization among runaway and homeless adolescents. J Res Adolesc 7(4):375–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Whitbeck LB, Hoyt DR, Ackley KA (1997b) Families of homeless and runaway adolescents: A comparison of parent/caretaker and adolescent perspectives on parenting, family violence, and adolescent conduct. Child Abuse Negl 21(6):517–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Whitbeck LB, Hoyt DR, Bao W-N (2000) Depressive symptoms and co-occurring depressive symptoms, substance abuse, and conduct problems among runaway and homeless adolescents. Child Dev 71(3):721–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yates GL, Pennbridge J, Swofford A, Mackenzie RG (1991) The Los Angeles system of care for runaway/homeless youth. J Adolesc Health 12(7):555–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yoder KA (1999) Comparing suicide attempters, suicide ideators and nonsuicidal homeless and runaway adolescents. Suicide Life-Threat Behav 29(1):25–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zlotnick C, Robertson MJ (1999) Getting off the streets: Economic resources and residential exits from homelessness. J Community Psychol 27(2):209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Pollio
    • 1
  • Sanna J. Thompson
    • 2
  • Lisa Tobias
    • 1
  • Donna Reid
    • 1
  • Edward Spitznagel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Warren Brown School of Social WorkWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.University of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations