Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 253–272 | Cite as

Expectations regarding development during adolescence: Parental and adolescent perceptions

  • Maja Deković
  • Marc J. Noom
  • Wim Meeus
Article

Abstract

The aims of this study were (1) to compare the age-related expectations of parents and adolescents concerning the timing of achievement in a number of developmental tasks, (2) to examine whether personal characteristics of the adolescent affect developmental expectations, and (3) to examine whether discrepancies between the adolescent’s and the parent’s expectations are related to the amount of parent-adolescent conflict. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12–18 years old). During a home visit, a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers, and adolescents. A new 24-item instrument to assess expectations for adolescents’ mastery of developmental tasks was developed for this study. Analyses showed that when the expectations of adolescents and those of their parents are compared at aggregate level, parents consistently indicate later ages for the achievement of developmental tasks than adolescents. Although parents have later timetables, parents and adolescents have strikingly similar views of the sequence in which achievement of developmental tasks should occur. The adolescent’s age appears to be the most potent predictor of developmental timetables, followed by gender, pubertal timing, and temperament, respectively. The amount of conflict within the parent-adolescent relationship was associated with differences in developmental expectations. The utility of the new instrument for research and clinical work is discussed.

Keywords

Health Psychology Personal Characteristic Home Visit Potent Predictor Aggregate Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Brooks-Gunn, J., Petersen, A. C., and Eichorn, D. (1985). The study of maturational timing effects in adolescence. J. Youth Adolesc. 14: 149–161.Google Scholar
  2. Brooks-Gunn, J., Warren, M. P., Rosso, J., and Gargiulo, J. (1987). Validity of self-report measures of girls’ pubertal status. Child Develop. 58: 829–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Buchanan, C. M., Eccles, J. S., Flanagan, C, Midgley, C, Feldlaufer, H., and Harold, R. D. (1990). Parents’ and teachers’ beliefs about adolescents: Effects of sex and experience. J. Youth Adolesc., 19: 363–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collins, W. A. (1991). Shared views and parent-adolescent relationship. In Paikoff, R. L. (ed.), Shared Views in the Family During Adolescence. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 103–110.Google Scholar
  5. Cooper, C. R., and Grotevant, H. D. (1987). Gender issues in the interface of family experience and adolescents’ friendship and dating identity. J. Youth Adolesc. 16: 247–264.Google Scholar
  6. Demo, D. H. (1991). A sociological perspective on parent-adolescent disagreements. In Paikoff, R. L. (ed.). Shared Views in the Family During Adolescence. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 111–118.Google Scholar
  7. Epstein, A. S. (1980). Assessing the Child Development Information Needed by Adolescent Parents with Very Young Children. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Feij, J. A., and Kuiper, C. M. (1984). Adolescent Temperament Lijst (ATL) [Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire], Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse.Google Scholar
  9. Feldman, S. S., and Quatman, T. (1988). Factors influencing age expectations for adolescent autonomy: A study of early adolescents and parents. J. Early Adolesc. 8: 325–343.Google Scholar
  10. Feldman, S. S., and Rosenthal, D. A. (1990). The acculturation of autonomy expectations in Chinese high schoolers residing in two Western nations. Int. J. Psychol. 25: 259–281.Google Scholar
  11. Feldman, S. S., and Rosenthal, D. A. (1991). Age expectations of behavioral autonomy in Hong Kong, Australian and American youth: The influence of the family variables and adolescents’ values. Int. J. Psychol. 26: 1–23.Google Scholar
  12. Goodnow, J. J. (1988). Parents’ ideas, actions, and feelings: Models and methods from developmental and social psychology. Child Develop. 59: 286–320.Google Scholar
  13. Goodnow, J. J., Cashmore, J., Cotton, S., and Knight, R. (1984). Mothers’ developmental timetables in two cultural groups. Int. J. Psychol. 19: 193–205.Google Scholar
  14. Goodnow, J. J., and Collins, W. A. (1990). Development According to Parents: The Nature, Sources, and Consequences of Parents’ Ideas. Erlbaum, London.Google Scholar
  15. Hess, R. D., Kashiwagi, K., Azuma, H., Price, G. G., and Dickson, W. P. (1980). Maternal expectations for mastery of developmental tasks in Japan and the United States. Int. J. Psychol. 15: 259–271.Google Scholar
  16. Holmbeck, G. N., and O’Donnell, K. (1991). Discrepancies between perceptions of decision making and behavioral autonomy. In Paikoff, R. L. (ed.), Shared Views in the Family During Adolescence. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 51–69.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, B. M., and Collins, W. A. (1988). Perceived maturity as a function of appearance cues in early adolescence: Rating of unacquainted adults, parents and teachers. J. Early Adolesc. 8: 357–372.Google Scholar
  18. Linden, F. J. van der, and Dijkman, T. A. (1989). Jong zijn en volwassen worden in Nederland [Being young and becoming adult in The Netherlands]. Hoogveld Instituut, Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  19. MacPhee, D. (1981). Manual Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  20. Miller, S. A. (1988). Parents’ beliefs about children’s cognitive development. Child Develop. 59, 259–285.Google Scholar
  21. Montemayor, R. (1982). The relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and amount of time adolescents spend alone and with parents and peers. Child Develop. 53: 1512–1519.Google Scholar
  22. Montemayor, R. (1983). Parents and adolescents in conflict: All families some of the time and some families most of the time. J. Early Adolesc. 3: 83–103.Google Scholar
  23. Montemayor, R. (1986). Family variation in parent-adolescent storm and stress. J. Adolesc. Res. 1: 15–31.Google Scholar
  24. Montemayor, R., and Brownlee, J. R. (1987). Fathers, mothers, and adolescents: Gender-based differences in parental roles during adolescence. J. Youth Adolesc. 16: 281–291.Google Scholar
  25. Nitz, K., and Lerner, J. V. (1991). Temperament during adolescence. In Lerner, R. M., Petersen, A. C., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Garland Publishing, New York, pp. 1127–1130.Google Scholar
  26. Noack, P., and Kracke, B. (1992, September). Developmental timetables for adolescents: Similarities and differences between adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and friends. Poster presented at the Vth European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Seville, Spain.Google Scholar
  27. Noom, M., Deković, M., and Loenen, K. van (1994, June). Measures of parental behavior towards adolescents: Convergent, discriminant, and external validity. Poster presented at the Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of ISSBD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. Palmonari, A., Kirchler, E., and Pombeni, M. L. (1991). Differential effects of identification with family and peers on coping with developmental tasks in adolescence. Eur. J. Social Psychol. 21: 381–402.Google Scholar
  29. Palmonari, A., Pombeni, M. L., and Kirchler, E. (1989). Peer group and evolution of the self-system in adolescence. Eur. J. Psychol. Educat. 4: 3–15.Google Scholar
  30. Palmonari, A., Pombeni, M. L., and Kirchler, E. (1990). Adolescents and their peer-groups: A study on the significance of peers, social categorization processes, and coping with developmental tasks. Social Behav. 5: 33–48.Google Scholar
  31. Papini, D. R., and Micka, J. C. (1991). Synchronization in ratings of pubertal maturity and faulty beliefs about family relationship. In Paikoff, R. L. (ed.), Shared Views in the Family During Adolescence. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 33–50.Google Scholar
  32. Petersen, A. C, Crockett, L., Richards, M., and Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. J. Youth Adolesc. 17: 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paikoff, R. L. (ed.). (1991). Shared Views in the Family During Adolescence. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  34. Paikoff, R. L., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1991). Do parent-child relationships change during puberty? Psychol. Bull. 110: 47–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Roehling, P. V., and Robin, A. L. (1986). Development and validation of the Family Beliefs Inventory: A measure of unrealistic beliefs among parents and adolescents. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 54: 693–697.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rosenthal, D., and Bornholt, L. (1988). Expectations about development in Greek-and Anglo-australian families. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 19: 19–34.Google Scholar
  37. Silbereisen, R. K. (1992, April). Psychological risks in adolescence. Paper presented at the Third Biennial Conference of the EARA, Bologna, Italy.Google Scholar
  38. Silbereisen, R. K., and Kracke, B. (1993). Variation in maturational timing and adjustment in adolescence. In Jackson, S., and Rodriguez-Tomé, H. (eds.), Adolescence and Its Social World. Erlbaum, East Sussex, pp. 67–94.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, K. A., and Forehand, R. (1986). Parent-adolescent conflict: Comparison and prediction of the perceptions of mothers, fathers, and daughters. J. Early Adolesc. 6: 353–367.Google Scholar
  40. Thomas, A. and Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and Development. Brunner/Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Thomas, A. and Chess, S. (1991). Temperament in adolescence and its functional significance. In Lerner, R. M., Petersen, A. C, and Brooks-Gunn, J. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Garland Publishing, New York, pp. 1131–1340.Google Scholar
  42. Youniss, J., and Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent Relations with Mothers, Fathers, and Friends. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maja Deković
    • 1
  • Marc J. Noom
    • 2
  • Wim Meeus
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Youth, Family, and Life Course, Faculty of Social SciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Youth, Family, and Life CourseUtrecht UniversityThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations