Advertisement

Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 435–483 | Cite as

Eurasian Steppe Chariots and Social Complexity During the Bronze Age

  • Igor V. ChechushkovEmail author
  • Andrei V. Epimakhov
Article

Abstract

This paper aims to examine some societal principles that underlie the development of horse-drawn chariots in Inner Eurasia during the Middle and Late Bronze Age (cal. 2050–1750 BC). Analysis is based on an evaluation and re-examination of the archaeological evidence for horse-drawn chariots, and the social constructs they entail. Chariots were developed in the zone of the Northern Eurasian steppes before c. 2000 BC in the context of complex but stateless societies. Because chariots depend on a set of developed skills, valuable resources, and complicated technologies, which involve several outstanding improvements to previously known solutions, they require specific conditions for their development and maintenance in social life. Most fundamentally, they require a group of people with an interest in this complex technology: a class of military elites characterized by aggrandizing behavior. The competition between collectives of military elites for resources, power and prestige brought into life the earliest chariot complex in the world.

Keywords

Chariot Bronze Age Eurasia Sintashta Social complexity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

On behalf of the South Ural State University, the authors thank the Ministry of Culture and Science of the Russian Federation for the financial support (grant # 33.5494.2017/ВР). The authors would like to thank colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Elizabeth Arkush, Robert Drennan, Maria Liz Baiocchi, Lauren Herckis, Patrick Mullins, Camilla Kelsoe, Mathew Kesterke and Loukas Barton, for the discussion and valuable comments to this paper. Gail Brownrigg provided valuable feedback and helped to pronounce our ideas in the clearest possible way. Two anonymous reviewers also gave us important feedback and suggestions to improve this article. We also gratefully acknowledge the following colleagues who supported this research over the years: Nikolai Vinogradov, Ludmila Koryakova, and Natalia Berseneva. Irina Shevnina kindly allowed us to provide the illustrations of the Bestamak Cemetery and Igor Novikov provided images of the Ozernoye-1 Cemetery. Stanislav Arefyev identified tree species of the ethnographic wheels. All opinions and mistakes within this paper are the sole responsibility of the authors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Alikhova, A. E. (1955). Kurgany epokhi bronzy u s. Komarovki [The Bronze Age kurgan cemetery near Komarovka]. Kratkiye soobshcheniya o dokladakh i polevykh issledovaniyakh Instituta istorii material’noy kul’tury: KSIIMK [Summary of the reports and field studies of the Institute of History of Material Culture: KSIIMK], 59, 91–99.Google Scholar
  2. Andreeva, M. V. (2009). Traditsii i novatsii v pogrebal’nom obryade katakombn’ikh plemen severo-vostochnogo Predkavkaz’ya [Traditions and innovations in the funeral ceremony of the Catacomb tribes in northeast Ciscaucasia]. Kratkiye Soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii, 223, 101–115.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, D. W. (2007). The horse, the wheel, and language: How Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian Steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, D. W. (2009). The Sintashta genesis: The roles of climate change, warfare and long-distance trade. In B. K. Hanks & K. M. Linduff (Eds.), Social complexity in prehistoric Eurasia: Monuments, metals, and mobility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anthony, D. W., & Brown, D. R. (2011). The secondary products revolution, horse-riding, and mounted warfare. Journal of World Prehistory, 24, 131–161.Google Scholar
  6. Anthony, D., Brown, D., George, C. (2006). Early horseback riding and warfare: The importance of the magpie around the neck. In S. L. Olsen, S. Grant, A. M. Choyke, & L. Bartosiewicz (Eds.), Horses and humans: The evolution of humanequine relationships. BAR International Series 1560 (pp. 137–156). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  7. Bersenev, A. G., Epimakhov, A. V., & Zdanovich, D. G. (2011). Sintashta bow (Bronze Age of the South Trans-Urals, Russia). In M. Uckelmann & M. Mödlinger (Eds.), Bronze Age warfare: Manufacture and use of weaponry (pp. 175–186). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  8. Berseneva, N. A. (2013). O podhodakh k izucheniyu militarizatsii sintashtinskogo obshchestva [Towards understanding of the military aspects of the Sintashta society]. Kratkiye soobshcheniya Instituta arkheologii [Brief Communications of the Institute of Archaeology], 36–43.Google Scholar
  9. Bogdanov, S. V. (2004). Epokha medi stepnogo Priural’ya [The Chalcolithic period of the cis-Urals]. Ekaterinburg: UrO RAN.Google Scholar
  10. Boroffka, N. (1999). Some cultural and social relationships in Bronze Age Eurasia. Complex societies of Central Asia in IIII millennia BC (pp. 80–83). Chelyabinsk: Chelyabinsk State University.Google Scholar
  11. Botalov, S. G., & Vasina, Y. V. (2014). Kamennaya skul’ptura loshadi: Sluchaynaya nakhodka iz urochishcha Buzykay [A stone sculpture of a horse: Accidental discovery near Buzykay]. Nauka YuUrGU: Materialy 66-y nauchnoy konferentsii (pp. 860–866). Chelyabinsk: YuUrGU.Google Scholar
  12. Brileva, O. A. (2012). Ancient bronze anthropomorphic figurines of Caucasus (XV c. BC–X c. AD). Moscow: TAUS.Google Scholar
  13. Brownrigg, G. (2006). Horse control and the bit. In S. L. Olsen, S. Grant, A. M. Choyke, & L. Bartosiewicz (Eds.), Horses and humans: The evolution of human–equine relationships (pp. 165–171). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  14. Chechushkov, I. V. (2007). Ogolov’ye kolesnichnoy loshadi epokhi bronzy: Eksperimental’noye issledovaniye [Headband of chariot horse during the Bronze Age: An experimental study]. Problemy istorii, filologii i kul’tury [Journal of Historical, Philological and Cultural Studies], 9, 421–428.Google Scholar
  15. Chechushkov, I. V., Epimakhov, A. V., & Bersenev, A. G. (2018). Early horse bridle with cheekpieces as a marker of social change: An experimental and statistical study. Journal of Archaeological Science, 97, 125–136.Google Scholar
  16. Cherednichenko, N. N., & Pustovalov, S. Z. (1991). Boyevyye kolesnitsy i kolesnichiye v obshchestve katakombnoy kul’tury (po materialam raskopok v nizhnem Podneprov’ye) [Chariots and charioteers in the Catacomb Culture society (excavations in the Lower Dnieper)]. Soviet Archaeology, 1, 206–216.Google Scholar
  17. Cherlenok, E. A. (2006). The chariot in Bronze Age funerary rites of the Eurasian steppes. In S. L. Olsen, S. Grant, A. M. Choyke, & L. Bartosiewicz (Eds.), Horses and humans: The evolution of humanequine relationships. BAR International Series (pp. 173–179). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  18. Chernykh, E. N. (1992). Ancient metallurgy in the USSR: The Early Metal Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Chernykh, E. N. (2002). Kargaly. Tom II: Gornyy – poseleniye epokhi pozdney bronzy: Topografiya, litologiya, stratigrafiya [Kargaly. Volume II: Gorny – the settlement of the Late Bronze Age: Topography, lithology, stratigraphy. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoy kul’tury.Google Scholar
  20. Chernykh, E. N. (2008). The ‘steppe belt’ of stockbreeding cultures in Eurasia during the Early Metal Age. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 65, 79–93.Google Scholar
  21. Cook, W. R. (2003). Bitless bridle for governing horses and other animals. Google Patents. https://patents.google.com/patent/US6591589B2/en. Accessed 20 Nov 2015.
  22. Crouwel, J. H. (2013). Studying the six chariots from the tomb of Tutankhamun: An update. In A. J. Veldmeijer & S. Ikram (Eds.), Chasing chariots: Proceedings of the first international chariot conference (Cairo 2012) (pp. 73–93). Leiden: Sidestone Press.Google Scholar
  23. Diakonov, I. M. (1950). Istoriya Midii: Ot drevneishikh vremen do kontsa IV veka do n. e. [History of Media: From prehistory to 4th century BC]. Moscow/Leningrad: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR.Google Scholar
  24. Ditz, U. L. (1992). Zur Frage vorbronzezeitlicher Trensenbelege in Europa. Germania, 70, 17–36.Google Scholar
  25. Drennan, R. D., Peterson, C. E., & Fox, J. R. (2010). Degrees and kinds of inequality. In T. D. Price & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Pathways to power: Fundamental issues in archaeology (pp. 45–76). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Earle, T. K. (1997). How chiefs come to power: The political economy in prehistory. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Epimakhov, A. V. (1996). Kurgannyy mogil’nik Solntse II: Nekropol’ ukreplennogo poseleniya Ust’ye epokhi sredney bronzy [The cemetery of Solntse II: The necropolis of the settlement Ust’ye of the Middle Bronze Age]. In N. O. Ivanova (Ed.), Materialy po arkheologii i etnografii Yuzhnogo Urala: Trudy muzeya–zapovednika Arkaim [Materials on the archaeology and ethnography of the Southern Urals: Proceedings of the Museum of Arkaim] (pp. 22–42). Chelyabinsk: Kamennyi Poyas.Google Scholar
  28. Epimakhov, A. V. (2004). K voprosu o ‘degradatsii’ kolesnichnogo kompleksa v period pozdney bronzy v Yuzhnom Zaural’ye (po materialam mogil’nika Nikolayevka II) [To the problem of ‘degradation’ of the chariot complex during the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Urals (the materials of the Nykolaevka II Cemetery)]. Vestnik ChGPU, 1, 105–111.Google Scholar
  29. Epimakhov, A. V. (2005). Ranniye kompleksnyye obshchestva severa Tsentral’noy Yevrazii: Po materialam mogil’nika Kamenniy Ambar-5 [Early complex societies of the north part of Central Eurasia: Materials from the cemetery of Kamennyi Ambar-5]. Chelyabinsk: Chelyabinskiy Dom Pechati.Google Scholar
  30. Epimakhov, A. V., & Berseneva, N. A. (2012). Variativnost’ pogrebal’noy praktiki sintashtinskogo naseleniya (poisk ob”yasnitel’nykh modeley) [Variability of burial practices among Sintashta people (searching for explanatory models)]. Vestnik NGU: Istoriya i Filologiya [Vestnik of Novosibirsk State University: History and Philology], 11, 148–170.Google Scholar
  31. Epimakhov, A. V., & Novikov, I. K. (2017). Problema interpretatsii kolesnichnoy simvoliki bronzovogo veka v lesostepnom Zaural’ye (mogil’nik Ozernoye-1) [The problem of interpretation of the chariot symbolism of the Bronze Age in the forest-steppe of the trans-Urals (the Ozernoe-1 Cemetery)]. Arkheologicheskiye Vesti [Archaeological News], 23, n/a.Google Scholar
  32. Frachetti, M. D. (2008). Pastoralist landscapes and social interaction in Bronze Age Eurasia. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Gak, E. I., Khodzhayeva, A. K., Chernysheva, E. V., & Borisov, A. V. (2014). Opyt vyavleniya i sistematizatsii infrastrukturnykh priznakov poseleniya katakombnoy kultury Rykan’-3 v lesostepnom Podoniye [Detection and systematization of the infrustructural features of the settlement Rykan-3 of the Catacomb culture in the forest-steppe Don valley]. Russian Archaeology, 4, 19–28.Google Scholar
  34. Gei, A. N. (2000). Novotitorovskaya kul’tura [The Novotitorovo culture]. Moscow: TOO Staryi Sad.Google Scholar
  35. Gening, V. F. (1977). Mogilnik Sintashta i problema rannikh indoiranskikh plemyen [The Sintashta cemetery and the problem of migrations of the early Indo-Iranians]. Soviet Archaeology, 4, 53–73.Google Scholar
  36. Gening, V. F., Zdanovich, G. B., & Gening, V. V. (1992). Sintashta: Arkheologicheskie pamiatniki ariiskikh plemen Uralo-Kazakhstanskikh stepei [Sintashta: The archaeological evidence for Aryans in the Ural-Kazakhstan steppes]. Chelyabinsk: Yuzhno-Uralʹskoe knizhnoe izd-vo.Google Scholar
  37. Genz, H. (2013). The introduction of the light, horse-drawn chariot and the role of archery in the Near East at the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Ages: Is there a connection? In A. J. Veldmeijer & S. Ikram (Eds.), Chasing chariots: Proceedings of the first international chariot conference (Cairo 2012) (pp. 95–105). Leiden: Sidestone Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gorbunov, V. S., Denisov, I. V., & Ismagilov, R. B. (1990). Novyye materialy po epokhe bronzy Yuzhnogo Priural’ya [New materials on the Bronze Age of the Southern Urals]. Ufa: Izd-vo BashGPI.Google Scholar
  39. Gorelik, M. V. (1985). Boyevyye kolesnitsy Perednego Vostoka III–II tysyacheletiy do n.e. [The battle chariots of the Near East in 3rd–2nd millennium BC]. Drevnyaya Anatolia [Ancient Anatolia] (pp. 183–202). Moscow: Glavnaya redakciya vostochnoy literatury izdatelstva ‘Nauka’.Google Scholar
  40. Gorotsov, V. A. (1927). Bronzovyy vek na territorii SSSR [The Bronze Age on the territory of the USSR]. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (pp. 610–626). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciclopedia.Google Scholar
  41. Grigoriev, S. A. (2002). Ancient Indo-Europeans. Chelyabinsk: RIFEI.Google Scholar
  42. Hanks, B. K., Epimakhov, A. V., & Colin, R. A. (2007). Towards a refined chronology for the Bronze Age of the Southern Urals, Russia. Antiquity, 81, 352–367.Google Scholar
  43. Hasel, M. (2004). Recent developments in Near Eastern chronology and radiocarbon dating. Origins, 56, 6–31.Google Scholar
  44. Hassan, F. A., & Robinson, W. (1987). High precision radiocarbon chronometry of ancient Egypt, and comparisons with Nubia, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. Antiquity, 61, 119–135.Google Scholar
  45. Herold, A. (2006). Streitwagentechnologie in der Ramses-Stadt: Knäufe, Knöpfe und Scheiben aus Stein. Darmstadt: Philipp Von Zabern Verlag Gmbh.Google Scholar
  46. Izbitser, E. (2013). The Royal Cemetery at Ur and early wheels. Tyragetia, VII, 9–17.Google Scholar
  47. James, F. (1974). Stone knobs and chariot tracks. Expedition, 16, 31.Google Scholar
  48. Jones-Bley, K. (2000). The Sintashta ‘chariots’. In J. Davis-Kimball, E. M. Murphy, L. Koryakova, & L. T. Yablonksy (Eds.), Kurgans, ritual sites, and settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age (pp. 135–140). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  49. Kaiser, E. (2010). Der Übergang zur Rinderzucht im nördlichen Schwarzmeerraum. Godišnjak Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, 39, 23–34.Google Scholar
  50. Khalikov, A. K., Lebedinskaya, G. V., & Gerasimova, M. M. (1966). Pepkinskyi kurgan (Abashevskyi chelovek) [The kurgan of Pepkino (The man of Abashevo)]. Ioshkar-Ola: Mariiskoye knizh-oe izd-vo.Google Scholar
  51. Kiyashko, A. V. (2002). K voprosu ob istokakh i etapakh katakombnogo kulturogeneza [The origins and stages of the kurgan (Catacomb) cultural genesis]. In Y. Y. Piotrovsky (Ed.), Steppe of Eurasia in ancient times and Middle Ages (pp. 155–157). St. Petersburg: The Hermitage Publishing House.Google Scholar
  52. Kiyashko, A. V., & Sukhorukova, E. P. (2012). Kul’turno-istoricheskoye razvitie Volgo-Donskogo regiona v epokhu sredney bronzy [The cultural and historical proccesses in the Volga–Don Region during the Middle Bronze Age]. Izvestiya VGPU, 75, 148–151.Google Scholar
  53. Kocherzhenko, O. V., & Slonov, V. N. (2010). O sotsial’noy strukture ‘kolesnichnykh’ obshchestv i fenomene ‘kolesnichnykh’ kul’tur bronzovogo veka yevrazii [About social structure of ‘chariot’s societies’ and the phenomenon of ‘chariot cultures’ in the Bronze Age of Eurasia]. Antichnyy mir i arkheologiya [The Antique World and Archaeology], 14, 408–417.Google Scholar
  54. Kohl, P. L. (2007). The making of Bronze Age Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Korenevskiy, S. N. (2012). Emergence of kurgan (funeral monuments of the Eneolith period in the northern Causasus and Volga–Don between rivers). Moscow: TAUS.Google Scholar
  56. Korenevskiy, S. N., Belinskiy, A. B., & Kalmykov, A. A. (2007). Bol’shoy Ipatovskiy kurgan na Stavropol’ye [Big mound of Ipatovsk in Stavropol region]. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  57. Korobkova, G. F., & Shaposhnikova, O. G. (2005). Poseleniye Mikhaylovka – etalonnyy pamyatnik drevneyamnoy kul’tury [The settlement of Mikhailovka as a reference site of the Pit Grave culture]. St. Petersburg: Evropeiskyi Dom.Google Scholar
  58. Koryakova, L. N., & Epimakhov, A. V. (2004). Streitwagen der Eurasischen Steppe in der Bronzezeit: Das Wolga-Uralgebirge und Kasachstan. In M. Fansa & S. Burmeister (Eds.), Rad und Wagen: Der Ursprung einer Innovation. Wagen im Vorderen Orient und Europa (pp. 221–236). Mainz: Verlag Phillip von Zabern.Google Scholar
  59. Koryakova, L. N., & Epimakhov, A. V. (2007). The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kosintsev, P. A. (2010). ‘Kolesnichye’ loshady [Chariot horses]. In E. E. Kuzmina (Ed.), Koni, kolesnitsy i kolesnichiye stepey Yevrazii [Horses, chariots and charioteers of the Eurasian steppes] (pp. 21–79). Yekaterinburg/Samara/Donetsk: Rifey.Google Scholar
  61. Kosintsev, P., & Kuznetsov, P. (2013). Comment on ‘The earliest horse harnessing and milking’. Tyragetia (Serie Nouă), 7, 405–408.Google Scholar
  62. Kovalevskaya, V. B. (2014). Drevneyshiye sredstva upravleniya konem (po materialam konegolovykh skipetrov V–IV tys. do n.e.) [The earliest means of horse control (based on the materials of the scepters of the V–IV millennium BC)]. In V. I. Molodin & A. V. Epimakhov (Eds.), The Aryans in the Eurasian Steppes: The Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the Steppes of Eurasia and contiguous territories. Elena Kuz’mina memorial volume (pp. 432–438). Barnaul: Altai State University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kozhin, P. M. (1985). K probleme proiskhozhdeniya kolesnogo transporta [On the problem of the origin of wheeled transport]. In Drevnyaya Anatolia (Ed.), Ancient Anatolia (pp. 169–182). Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  64. Kozhin, P. M. (2007). Etnokul’turnyye kontakty naseleniya Yevrazii v eneoliterannem zheleznom veke (paleokul’turologiya i kolesnyy transport) [Ethno-cultural contacts between the populations of Eurasia in the Copper Age and Early Iron Age (cultural studies and wheeled vehicles)]. Vladivostok: Dal’nauka.Google Scholar
  65. Kozhin, P. M. (2015). Drevnyi kolosnyi transport: Sostoyaniye problem i rabochiye gipotezy [Ancient wheeled transport: Condition of problems and working hypotheses]. Sayan-Altai Scientific Review, 1, 2–18.Google Scholar
  66. Kupriyanpova, E. V., & Zdanovich, D. G. (2015). Drevnosti lesostepnogo Zauraliya: Mogilnik Stepnoye VII [The Antiquities of the forest-steppe Trans-Urals: The cemetery of Stepnoye VII]. Chelyabinsk: Enciklopedia.Google Scholar
  67. Kuzmina, E. E. (1994). Otkuda prishli indoarii? [Whence came the Indo-Aryans?]. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura.Google Scholar
  68. Kuzmina, E. E. (2001). The first migration wave of Indo-Iranians to the South. Journal of Indo-European Studies, 29, 1–40.Google Scholar
  69. Kuzmina, E. E. (2003). Abashevo, Sintashta i proiskhozhdeniye indoirantsev [Abashevo, Sintashta and origin of the Indo-Iranians]. In V. S. Bochkarev (Ed.), Abashevskaya kul’turno-istoricheskaya obshchnost’: Istoki, razvitiye, naslediye [The Abashevo cultural and historical community: Origins, development, heritage] (pp. 76–77). Cheboksary: Chuvashskiy gosudarstvennyy institut gumanitarnykh nauk.Google Scholar
  70. Kuzmina, E. E. (2007). The origin of the Indo-Iranians. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  71. Kuzmina, E. E. (2010). Predystoriya Velikogo shelkovogo puti: Dialog kul'tur Yevropa—Aziya [Prehistory of the Great Silk Road: Dialogue of Cultures Europe–Asia]. Moscow: KomKniga.Google Scholar
  72. Kuzmina, O. V. (2000). Abashevskaya kul’tura v Samarskom Povolzh’ye [The Abashevo culture in the Samara Volga region]. In Y. I. Kovalev, A. E. Mamonov, & M. A. Tureckiy (Eds.), Istoriya Samarskogo Povolzh’ya s drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney. Bronzovyy vek [The history of the Samara Volga Region from the ancient times to the modern days. The Bronze Age] (pp. 85–121). Samara: Izd-vo Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk.Google Scholar
  73. Kuzminykh, S. V., & Mimokhod, R. A. (2016). Radiouglerodnyye daty Pepkinskogo kurgana i nekotoryye voprosy khronologii srednevolzhskoy abashevskoy kul’tury [The radiocarbon dates of the Pepkino kurgan and some issues of the chronology of the Middle-Volga Abashevo culture]. Vneshniye i vnutrenniye svyazi stepnykh (skotovodcheskikh) kul’tur Vostochnoy Yevropy v eneolite i bronzovom veke (VII tys. do n. e.) [External and internal communication of the steppe cultures of Eastern Europe in the Copper Age and the Bronze Age (VII mil. BC)] (pp. 39–44). St. Petersburg: Insitut istorii material’noy kultury RAN.Google Scholar
  74. Kuznetsov, P. F. (2003). K voprosu o khronologii abashevskoy kul’tury [On the chronology of the Abashevo Culture]. In V. S. Bochkarev (Ed.), Abashevskaya kul’turno-istoricheskaya obshchnost’: Istoki, razvitiye, naslediye [The Abashevo common historical culture: Genesis, development, heritage] (pp. 86–88). Cheboksary: Tchuvash State Institute of Humanities.Google Scholar
  75. Kuznetsov, P. F. (2006). The emergence of Bronze Age Chariots in Eastern Europe. Antiquity, 80, 638–645.Google Scholar
  76. Kuznetsov, P. F., & Semenova, A. P. (2000). Pamyatniki potapovskogo tipa [Sites of the Potapovo type]. In Yu. I. Kovalev, A. E. Mamonov, & M. A. Tureckiy (Eds.), Istoriya Samarskogo Povolzh’ya s drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney. Bronzovyy vek [History of the Samara Volga region from ancient times to the present day. The Bronze Age] (pp. 122–152). Samara: Izd-vo SNC RAN.Google Scholar
  77. Levine, M. A. (1999). The origins of horse husbandry on the Eurasian steppe. In M. A. Levine, Y. Rassamakin, A. Kislenko, & N. Tatarintseva (Eds.), Late prehistoric exploitation of the Eurasian Steppe (pp. 5–58). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  78. Levine, M. A., Renfrew, C., & Boyle, K. (2003). Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse. McDonald Institute Monographs 448. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  79. Littauer, M. A. (1977). Rock carvings of chariots in Transcaucasia, Central Asia and Outer Mongolia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 43, 243–262.Google Scholar
  80. Littauer, M. A., & Crouwel, J. H. (1979). Wheeled vehicles and ridden animals in the Ancient Near East. Leiden/Cologne: Brill.Google Scholar
  81. Littauer, M. A., & Crouwel, J. H. (1985). Chariots and related equipment from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Oxford: Griffith Institute.Google Scholar
  82. Littauer, M. A., & Crouwel, J. H. (1996). The origin of the true chariot. Antiquity, 70, 934–939.Google Scholar
  83. Littauer, M. A., Crouwel, J. H., & Raulwing, P. (2002). Selected writings on chariots and other early vehicles, riding and harness. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  84. Logvin, V. N., & Shevnina, I. V. (2008). Elitnoye pogrebeniye sintashtinsko-petrovskogo vremeni s mogil’nika Bestamak [An elite burial of the Sintashta-Petrovka period from the Bestamak cemetery]. In S. F. Tataurov & I. V. Tolpenko (Eds.), VII istoricheskiye chteniya pamyati Mikhaila Petrovicha Gryaznova: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Papers in memory of Mikhail Petrovich Gryaznov: Issue VII] (pp. 190–197). Omsk: Izd-vo Omskogo gos. un–ta.Google Scholar
  85. Mellaart, J. (1979). Egyptian and Near Eastern chronology: A dilemma? Antiquity, 53, 6–22.Google Scholar
  86. Merpert, N. Y. (1974). Drevneyshiye skotovody Volzhsko–Ural’skogo mezhdurech’ya [The earliest herders of the Volga and Ural interfluve]. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  87. Moiseev, N. B., & Efimov, K. Y. (1995). Pichaevsky kurgan [The Pichaevo kurgan]. In I. B. Vasiliev (Ed.), Drevnie Indoiranskiye kultury Volgo–Uraliya (II tys. do n. e.) (pp. 72–81). Samara: Izd-vo SamGPU.Google Scholar
  88. Moorey, P. R. S. (1986). The emergence of the light, horse-drawn chariot in the Near East c. 2000–1500 BC. World Archaeology, 18, 196–215.Google Scholar
  89. Morgunova, N. L. (2000). Bol’shoy Boldyrevskiy kurgan [The large kurgan of Boldyrevo]. In N. L. Morgunova (Ed.), Arkheologicheskiye pamyatniki Orenburzh’ya [Archaeological sites of the Orenburg Region] (pp. 55–64). Orenburg: OOO Orenburgskaya guberniya.Google Scholar
  90. Morgunova, N. L. (2014). Priuralskaya gruppa pamyatnikov v sisteme Volzhsko-Uralskogo varianta Yamnoyi kulturno-istoricheskoyi oblasti [South Ural group of the Volga-Ural variant of the Yamnaya cultural and historical community]. Orenburg: Izdatelstvo OGPU.Google Scholar
  91. Novák, M. (2007). Mitanni empire and the question of absolute chronology: Some archaeological considerations. In M. Bietak & E. Czerny (Eds.), The synchronization of civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean in the second millennium BC III (pp. 389–401). Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  92. Novozhenov, V. A. (1989). Kolesnyy transport epokhi bronzy Uralo-Kazakhstanskikh stepey [Wheeled transport of the Bronze Age of the Ural-Kazakhstan steppes]. In V. V. Evdokimov (Ed.), Voprosy arkheologii tsentral’nogo i severnogo Kazakhstana: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Problems of the archaeology of central and northern Kazakhstan: Collection of papers] (pp. 110–122). Karaganda: Izd-vo KarGU.Google Scholar
  93. Novozhenov, V. A. (2012). Chudo kommunikatsii i drevneyshiy kolesnyy transport Yevrazii [Communications and earliest wheeled transport of Eurasia]. Moscow: TAUS Publishing.Google Scholar
  94. Novozhenov, V. A. (2014a). Andronovskaya izobrazitel’naya traditsiya v petroglifakh epokhi bronzy Tsentral’noy Azii [Andronovo pictorial tradition in the Bronze Age petroglyphs of Central Asia]. In V. I. Molodin & A. V. Epimakhov (Eds.), Arii stepey yevrazii: Epokha bronzy i rannego zheleza v stepyakh Evrazii i na sopredel’nykh territoriyakh [The Aryans in the Eurasian steppes: The Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the steppes of Eurasia and contiguous territories] (pp. 455–468). Barnaull: Altai State University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Novozhenov, V. A. (2014b). Glava 3. Izobrazitel’nyye kommunikatsii [Chapter 3. Graphic communications]. In V. A. Novozhenov & A. Epimakhov (Eds.), The mystery of the ethnic history of the earliest nomads of the Eurasian steppe (pp. 206–249). Almaty: TOO ‘Ostrov Krym’.Google Scholar
  96. Oppenheim, A. L., & Reiner, E. (1977). Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a dead civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Outram, A. K., Stear, N. A., Bendrey, R., Olsen, S., Kasparov, A., Zaibert, V., et al. (2009). The earliest horse harnessing and milking. Science, 323, 1332–1335.Google Scholar
  98. Piggott, S. (1983). The earliest wheeled transport: From the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea. New York: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  99. Pogrebova, M. (2003). The emergence of chariots and riding in the South Caucasus. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 22, 397–409.Google Scholar
  100. Pryakhin, A. D. (2011). Pamyatniki pokrovskogo tipa na sovremennom etape izuchenia [The sites of the Pokrovka type in the modern stage of study]. Vestnik VGU, 62–74.Google Scholar
  101. Pryakhin, A. D., & Besedin, V. I. (1998). Konskaya uzda perioda sredney bronzy v Vostochnoevropeiskoy lesostepi i stepi [Horse bridle of the Middle Bronze Age in the East Europe forest-steppe and steppe zones]. Russian Archaeology, 22–35.Google Scholar
  102. Pustovalov, S. Z. (2008). Yamno-katakombnyye transportnyye sredstva i kriterii vydeleniya boyevykh kolesnits epokhi bronzy [Yamnya and Catacomb cultures vehicles and the criteria for allocation of chariots of the Bronze Age]. In A. Vasilenko (Ed.), Proiskhozhdeniye i rasprostraneniye kolesnichestva. Sbornik nauchnykh statey (pp. 100–112). Lugansk: Globus.Google Scholar
  103. Rassamakin, Y. (1994). The main directions of the development of early pastoral societies of Northern Pontic Zone: 4500–2450 BC (pre-Yamnaya cultures and Yamnaya culture). Baltic-Pontic Studies, 2, 29–70.Google Scholar
  104. Raulwing, P. (2009). The Kikkuli text: Hittite training instructions for chariot horses in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC and their interdisciplinary context. http://www.lrgaf.org/Peter_Raulwing_The_Kikkuli_Text_MasterFile_Dec_2009.pdf. . Accessed 20 Nov 2015.
  105. Raulwing, P., & Burmeister, S. (2012). Chariotry, ancient Near East and Egypt. In R. S. Bagnall, K. Brodersen, C. B. Champion, A. Erskine, & S. R. Huebner (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of ancient history. Hoboken: Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444338386.wbeah24050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reade, J. (2001). Assyrian king-lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 60, 1–29.Google Scholar
  107. Ryndina, N. V., & Degtyareva, A. D. (2001). Eneolit i bronzovyy vek [Chalcolithic and Bronze Age]. Moscow: MGU.Google Scholar
  108. Sarianidi, V. (2007). Necropolis of Gonur. Athens: Kapon Editions.Google Scholar
  109. Sellet, F. (1993). Chaîne opératoire: The concept and its application. Lithic Technology, 18, 106–112.Google Scholar
  110. Semenova, A. P. (2000). Pogrebal’nyye pamyatniki srubnoy kul’tury [The cemeteries of the Timber Grave culture]. In Yu. I. Kovalev, A. E. Mamonov, & M. A. Tureckiy (Eds.), Istoriya Samarskogo Povolzh’ya s drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney: Bronzovyy vek [The history of the Samara Volga region from the ancient times to the modern days: The Bronze Age] (pp. 152–208). Samara: Izd-vo Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk.Google Scholar
  111. Shishlina, N. I., Kovalev, D. S., & Ibragimova, E. R. (2014). Catacomb culture wagons of the Eurasian Steppes. Antiquity, 88, 378–394.Google Scholar
  112. Spruytte, J. (1983). Early harness systems: Experimental studies. London: J. A. Allen & Co.Google Scholar
  113. Stefanov, V. I., & Epimakhov, A. V. (2006). Sintashtinskiy III (malyy) kurgan: Nekotoryye podrobnosti i novyye syuzhety [The Sintashta III (little) mound: Details and new plots]. In I. N. Vasil’yeva, S. V. Kuz’minykh, P. F. Kuznetsov, L. S. Kulakova, & N. P. Salugina (Eds.), Voprosy arkheologii Povolzh’ya [Problems of archaeology of the Volga region] (Vol. 4, pp. 263–271). Samara: Izd-vo ‘Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy tsentr’.Google Scholar
  114. Stobbe, A. (2013). Long-term perspective on Holocene environmental changes in the steppe of the Trans-Urals (Russia): Implications for understanding the human activities in the Bronze Age indicated by palaeoecological studies. In R. Kraise & L. N. Koryakova (Eds.), Multidisciplinary investigations of the Bronze Age settlements in the southern Trans-Urals (Russia) (pp. 305–326). Bonn: Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH.Google Scholar
  115. Tikhonov, B. G., & Matveev, Y. P. (1981). Universitetskie poseleniya srednedonskoy katakombnoy kultury v poime r. Voronezh [The settlements of the Srednedonskoy Catacomb culture in the valley of the Voronezh River]. In V. A. Mukonina (Ed.), Epokha bronzy Volgo-Uralskoi lesostepi [The Bronze Age of the Volga-Ural forrest-steppe] (pp. 75–87). Voronezh: Izdatelstvo Voronezhskogo Universiteta.Google Scholar
  116. Tkachev, А.A. (1999). Osobennosti nurtayskikh kompleksov Tsentral'nogo Kazakhstana [Nurtai complexes of Central Kazakhstan]. Bulletin of Archeology, Anthropology and Ethnography, 2, 22–29.Google Scholar
  117. Tkachev, V. V. (2006). Zaklyuchitel'nyy etap epokhi sredney bronzy v stepnom Priural'ye. [The final stage of the Middle Bronze Age in the Steppe Urals]. Chelyabinsk: Rifey.Google Scholar
  118. Tkachev, V. V. (2007). Stepi yuzhnogo Priural’ya i zapadnogo Kazakhstana na rubezhe epokh sredney i pozdney bronzy [Steppes of the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan at the turn of the Middle and Late Bronze Age]. Aktobe: Aktyubinskiy oblastnoy tsentr istorii, etnografii i arkheologii.Google Scholar
  119. Usachuk, A. N. (2012). Drevneyshiye psalii (izgotovleniye i ispol’zovaniye) [The Earliest cheekpieces (production and utilization)]. Kiev: Institut arkheologii NAN Ukrainy.Google Scholar
  120. Valchak, S. B. (2009). Konskoye snaryazheniye v pervoi treti I-go tys. do n.e. na yuge Vostochnoy Evropy [The horse harness of the first millennia BC in the South of East Europe]. Moscow: TAUS.Google Scholar
  121. Vasiliev, I. B., Kuznetsov, P. F., & Semenova, A. P. (1994). Potapovskyi kurgannyi mogil’nik indoiranskikh plemen na Volge [The Potapovo kurgan cemetery of the Indo-Iranian people on the Volga]. Samara: Izd-vo ‘Samarskiy Universitet’.Google Scholar
  122. Vinogradov, N. B. (2003). Mogil’nik bronzovogo veka Krivoye Ozero v yuzhnom Zaural’ye [The Bronze Age cemetery of Krivoe Ozero in the southern Urals]. Chelyabinsk: Yuzhno-Ural’skoye kn. izd-vo.Google Scholar
  123. Vinogradov, N. B. (2011). Stepi yuzhnogo Urala i Kazakhstana v pervyye veka II tys. do n.e. (pamyatniki sintashtinskogo i petrovskogo tipa) [Steppes of southern Urals and Kazakhstan in the first centuries of the 2nd millennium BC (Sites of the Sintashta and Petrovka types)]. Chelyabinsk: Abris.Google Scholar
  124. Woolley, C. L. (1934). The royal cemetery: Ur excavations. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  125. Woolley, C. L. (1965). Excavation at Ur: A record of twelve years’ work by Sir Leonard Woolley. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.Google Scholar
  126. Wright, R. P. (2008). Foreword: Exploring unknown lands and bringing new worlds into gender studies. In K. M. Linduff & K. S. Rubinson (Eds.), Are all warriors male? Gender Roles on the ancient Eurasian Steppe (pp. xi–xix). Plymouth: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  127. Wu, H.-Y. (2013). Chariots in early China: Origins, cultural interaction, and identity. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  128. Yesayan, S. A. (1960). Iz istorii kolesnogo transporta drevney Armenii (po archeologicheskim materialam) [To the history of wheeled transport of ancient Armenia]. Istoriko-filologicheskiy zhurnal [Journal of History and Philology], 3, 141–151.Google Scholar
  129. Zaharova, E. Y. (2000). Sosudy so znakami srubnoy obshchnosti epokhi pozdney bronzy [Ceramic vessels with signs of the Srubnaya culture of the Late Bronze Age]. Voronezh: Tsentral’no-chernozemnoye Knizh. Izd-vo.Google Scholar
  130. Zdanovich, D. G. (2005). Zhertvoprinosheniya zhivotnykh v pogrebal’nom obryade naseleniya stepnogo Zaural’ya epokhi sredney bronzy: Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoy stepene kandidata istoricheskikh nauk [Animal sacrifices in the Middle Bronze Age cemeteries in the southern Urals: Author’s abstract of the doctoral dissertation]. Ekaterinburg: Institut Istorii i Arkheologii.Google Scholar
  131. Zdanovich, G. B. (1978). Otchet ob arkheologicheskikh issledovaniyakh UKAE v 1977 godu [Report on the archaeological investigation of UKAE in 1977]. Chelyabinsk: Chelyabinsk State University.Google Scholar
  132. Zdanovich, G. B. (1988). Bronzovyy vek Uralo-Kazakhstanskikh stepey [The Bronze Age of the Ural-Kazakhstan steppes]. Sverdlovsk: Izd-vo Ural’skogo un-ta.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Institute of History and Archaeology, The Ural Division of the Russian Academy of ScienceSouth Ural State UniversityChelyabinskRussia

Personalised recommendations