Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 997–1008 | Cite as

National systems of innovation

  • Zoltán J. Acs
  • David B. Audretsch
  • Erik E. Lehmann
  • Georg Licht
Article

Abstract

The perhaps broadest approach to economic performance at the level of a country is the concept of national systems of innovation. Despite the emergence of a compelling literature identifying the persistence of innovative activities and country specific institutional effects, evidence on the nature of national systems of innovation is still missing and a number of crucial questions and answers remain unanswered. To shed light on these issues, as of leading scholars of entrepreneurship and innovation was assembled from around the world for a conference on “National Systems of Entrepreneurship and Innovation” at the ZEW Mannheim in November 2014. This article draws on the NSI framework, sets it in a larger context, examines the logic of the approach and introduces the special issue by summarizing the papers presented at the conference and selected for this special issue.

Keywords

National systems of innovation Innovation Entrepreneurship 

JEL Classification

L26 L53 M13 O3 

References

  1. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. (2012). Growth and entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(2), 213–245. doi: 10.1007/s11187-010-9307-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. E. (2013). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 41, 757–774. doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9505-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., & Licht, G. (2016). National systems of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 46(4), 527–535. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9705-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2014). National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. Research Policy, 43, 476–494. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2013.08.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., & Szerb, L. (2015). National systems of entrepreneurship. In Z. J. Acs, E. Autio, & L. Szerb (Eds.), Global entrepreneurship and development index 2014 (pp. 13–26)., Springer briefs in economics, Chap. 2 Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-14932-5_2.Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., Audretsch, D. B., & Carlsson, B. (2009). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(1), 15–30. doi: 10.1007/s11187-008-9157-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asheim, B., & Gertler, M. S. (2004). The geography of innovation: Regional innovation systems. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 291–317). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Audretsch, D. B. (2015). The strategic management of place. In D. B. Audretsch, A. N. Link, & M. L. Walshok (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of local competitiveness (pp. 13–33). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Audretsch, D. B., & Belitski, M. (2016). Entrepreneurial ecosystems in cities: Establishing the framework conditions. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9473-8.
  10. Audretsch, D. B., & Caiazza, R. (2016). Technology transfer and entrepreneurship: Cross-national analysis. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-015-9441-8.Google Scholar
  11. Audretsch, D. B., Kuratko, D. F., & Link, A. N. (2015a). Making sense of the elusive paradigm of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 45(4), 703–712. doi: 10.1007/s11187-015-9663-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. E. (2016). The seven secrets of Germany. Economic resilience in an era of global turbulence. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., & Paleari, S. (2015b). Academic policy and entrepreneurship: A European perspective. Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(3), 363–368. doi: 10.1007/s10961-014-9359-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., Paleari, S., & Vismara, S. (2016). Entrepreneurial finance and technology transfer. Journal of Technology Transfer, 41(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1007/s10961-014-9381-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Autio, E., Kenny, M., Mustar, P., Siegel, D. S., & Wright, M. (2015). Entrepreneurial innovation: The imortance of context. Research Policy, 43, 1097–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Autio, E., & Levie, J. (2015). Management of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Imperial college Business School, Mimeo.Google Scholar
  17. Ayoub, M. R., Gottschalk, S., & Mueller, B. (2016). Impact of public seed-funding for academic spin-offs. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9476-5.
  18. Baumol, W., Litan, R., & Shramm, C. (2009). Good capitalism bad capitalism. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Carlsson, B., Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., & Audretsch, D. B. (2009). Knowledge creation, entrepreneurship and economic growth: A historical review. Industry and Corporate Change, 18, 1193–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cowling, M. (2016). You can lead a firm to R&D but can you make it innovate? UK evidence from SMEs. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9704-2.Google Scholar
  21. Duranton, G., Martin, P., Mayer, T., & Mayneris, F. (2010). The economics of clusters. New York: Oxford university Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edquist, C. (1997). Systems of innovation approaches—Their emergence and characteristics. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies, institutions, and organizations (pp. 1–35). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Edquist, C. (2004). Systems of innovation: Perspectives and challenges. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 181–208). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Edquist, C., & Lundvall, B.-E. (1993). Comparing the Danish and Swedish systems of innovation. In R. Nelson (Ed.), NSI (pp. 265–297). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D. C., & Verspagen, B. (2009). The evolution of Norway's national innovation System. Science and Public Policy, 36(6), 431–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Filippetti, A., & Archibugi, D. (2011). Innovation in times of crises: National systems of innovation, structure, and demand. Research Policy, 40, 179–192. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2010.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghio, N., Guerini, M., Lehmann, E. E., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2015). The emergence of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 44(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1007/s11187-014-9588-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, M. J., Layson, S. K., & Link, A. N. (2014). The returns to R&D: Division of policy research and analysis at the National Science Foundation. Science and Public Policy, 41(4), 458–463. doi: 10.1093/scipol/sct055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. (2001). Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition & entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Lafuente, E., Szerb, L., & Acs, Z. J. (2015). Country level efficiency and national systems of entrepreneurship: A data envelopment analysis approach. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-015-9440-9.Google Scholar
  32. Lehmann, E. E., & Menther, M. (2016). University–industry collaboration and regional wealth. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-015-9445-4.Google Scholar
  33. Lehmann, E. E., & Seitz, N. (2016). Freedom and innovation: A country and state level analysis. Journal of Technology Tranfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9478-3.
  34. Leyden, D. (2016). Public-sector entrepreneurship and the creation of a sustainable innovative economy. Small Business Economics, 46(4), 553–564. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9706-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leyden, D., & Link, A. N. (2015a). Public sector entrepreneurship. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leyden, D. P., & Link, A. N. (2015b). Toward a theory of the entrepreneurial process. Small Business Economics, 44(3), 475–484. doi: 10.1007/s11187-014-9606-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li, X. (2016). Exploring the spatial heterogeneity of entrepreneurship in Chinese manufacturing industries. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9474-7.Google Scholar
  38. Link, A. N. (2015a). Yet another measure of ignorance. In C. Antonelli & A. N. Link (Eds.), Routledge handbook of the economics of knowledge. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  39. Link, A. N. (2015b). Capturing knowledge: Private gains and public gains from universities research partnerships. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 11, 139–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. List, F. (1841). Der international Handel, die Handelspolitik und der deutsche Zollverein. Tübingen: Cotta. Google Scholar
  41. Lundvall, B.-A. (Ed.). (1992). National systems of innovation: Toward a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  42. Lundvall, B. (2005). Innovation policy and knowledge management in the learning economy. In D. V. Gibson, M. V. Heitor, & A. Ibarra-Yunez (Eds.), Learning and knowledge for the network society (pp. 25–56). West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
  43. March, J. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organizational Science, 2, 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCann, P., & Ortega-Argilés, R. (2016). Smart specialization, entrepreneurship and SMEs: Issues and challenges for a results-oriented EU regional policy. Small Business Economics. doi: 10.1007/s11187-016-9707-z.Google Scholar
  45. Mrozewski, M., & Kratzer, J. (2016). Entrepreneurship and country-level innovation: Investigating the role of entrepreneurial opportunities. Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9479-2.
  46. Nelson, R. R. (1993). National systems of innovation: A comparative analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Porter, M. E. (2000). Location, competition, and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roberts, P. (2004). The modern firm. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Rosenberg, N., & Nelson, R. (1993). Technical innovation and national systems. In R. R. Nelson (Ed.), National innovation systems: A comparative analysis (pp. 3–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Santarelli, E., & Tran, H. T. (2016). Young innovative companies: Are they high performers in transition economies? Evidence for Vietnam, Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9475-6.Google Scholar
  53. Schumpeter, J. A. (1911/1934). The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  55. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  56. Stake, J. Y. (2016). Evaluating quality or lowest price: Consequences for small and medium-sized enterprises in public procurement. Journal of Technolgy Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9477-4.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zoltán J. Acs
    • 1
  • David B. Audretsch
    • 2
  • Erik E. Lehmann
    • 3
  • Georg Licht
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Public PolicyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  2. 2.School of Public and Environmental AnalysisIndiana University, BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA
  3. 3.Faculty of Business and EconomicsUniversity of AugsburgAugsburgGermany
  4. 4.ZEW – Centre for European Economic Research MannheimMannheimGermany

Personalised recommendations