What drives ICT clustering in European cities?
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ICT clusters have attracted much attention because of their rapid growth and their value for other economic activities. Using a nested multi-level model, we examine how conditions at the country level and at the city level affect ICT clustering activity in 227 cities across 22 European countries. We test for the influence of three country regulations (starting a business, registering property, enforcing contracts) and two city conditions (proximity to university, network density) on ICT clustering. We consider heterogeneity within the sector and study two types of ICT activities: ICT product firms and ICT content firms. Our results indicate that country conditions and city conditions each have idiosyncratic implications for ICT clustering, and further, that these can vary by activities in ICT products or ICT content manufacturing.
KeywordsICT Clustering Europe Policy Multi-level Urban
JEL ClassificationR110 R120 L00
We thank Zoltan Acs, David Audretsch and participants of the 2013 Transatlantic Policy Consortium.
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