Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 252–272 | Cite as

Technology exchange patterns in China: an analysis of regional data

  • Yuandi Wang
  • Xin Pan
  • Lutao Ning
  • Jian Li
  • Jin Chen
Article

Abstract

There is much interest in technology exchange in the literature, but relatively little research directly provides understanding of technology exchange patterns at a regional level within a country. This study uses a unique dataset of Chinese patent licensing to study technology exchange patterns in thirty Chinese provinces since 2000. Our results indicate that five distinct technology exchange patterns have recently emerged in China: importers, exporters, self-sustainers, active generalists, and isolationists. To illustrate a refined map of these exchange patterns, we used a blockmodel analysis. We found two leading blocks in China that are active in technology exchange within and across blocks. Although many less-developed provinces have begun participating in regional technology exchange networks, the scale of technology exchange in these provinces is lower, and they are more active as net technology importers. Our results provide the basis for firms to form technology strategies and for governors to promote the growth of regional technology exchanges.

Keywords

Technology exchange Patent Technology licensing Regional patterns China 

JEL Classification

O33 R11 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions. This research is sponsored by projects grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no: 71302133), Youth Project of Ministry of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Funding (grant no. 13YJC790154), and Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (grant no.20130181120057).

References

  1. Aloni, M. (1985). Patterns of information transfer among engineers and applied scientists in complex organizations. Scientometrics, 8(5), 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amesse, F., & Cohendet, P. (2001). Technology transfer revisited from the perspective of the knowledge-based economy. Research Policy, 30(9), 1459–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armando, A., & Plaza, L. M. (2004). The transfer of knowledge from the Spanish public R&D system to the productive sectors in the field of Biotechnology. Scientometrics, 59(1), 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora, A., & Gambardella, A. (2010). Ideas for rent: An overview of markets for technology. Industrial and Corporate Change, 19(3), 775–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Audretsch, D. B., & Feldman, M. P. (1996). R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. The American Economic Review, 86(3), 630–640.Google Scholar
  6. Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E., & Wright, M. (2012). Technology transfer in a global economy. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 28. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6102-9.
  7. Baranson, J. (1970). Technology transfer through the international firm. American Economic Review, 60, 435–440.Google Scholar
  8. Butts, C. T. (2008). Social network analysis: A methodological introduction. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 11(1), 13–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cattani, G., & Ferriani, S. (2008). A core/periphery perspective on individual creative performance: Social networks and cinematic achievements in the Hollywood film industry. Organization Science, 19(6), 824–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, C., & Hicks, D. (2004). Tracing knowledge diffusion. Scientometrics, 59(2), 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chesbrough, H. W. (2003). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology Boston. Mass: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chesbrough, H., & Prencipe, A. (2008). Networks of innovation and modularity: A dynamic perspective. International Journal of Technology Management, 42(4), 414–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christopherson, S., & Clark, J. (2010). Limits to ‘The learning region’: What university-centered economic development can (and cannot) do to create knowledge-based regional economies. Local Economy, 25(2), 120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.Google Scholar
  15. Cooke, P. (1994). Technology and economic development: The dynamics of local, regional and national change: E. Malecki, (Longman, London, 1991) pp. XV + 495, ISBN 0-582-01758-0. Research Policy, 23(1), 103–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooke, P. (2001). Regional innovation systems, clusters, and the knowledge economy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(4), 945–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooke, P., Gomez Uranga, M., & Etxebarria, G. (1997). Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions. Research Policy, 26(4), 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Criscuolo, P., Narula, R., & Verspagen, B. (2005). Role of Home and Host Country innovation systems in R&D internationalization: A patent citation analysis. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14(5), 417–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cummings, J. L., & Teng, B.-S. (2003). Transferring R&D knowledge: The key factors affecting knowledge transfer success. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20(1–2), 39–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Debackere, K., & Veugelers, R. (2005). The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links. Research Policy, 34(3), 321–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Díez-Vial, I., & Fernández-Olmos, M. (2014). Knowledge spillovers in science and technology parks: How can firms benefit most? The Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-013-9329-4.
  22. Dunning, J. H. (1983). Market power of the firm and international transfer of technology: A historical excursion. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 1(4), 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dyker, D. A. (2001). Technology exchange and the foreign business sector in Russia. Research Policy, 30(5), 851–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farris, G. (2007). Research on innovation management and technology transfer in China. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 32(1–2), 123–126.Google Scholar
  25. Ferragina, A. M., & Mazzotta, F. (2013). FDI spillovers on firm survival in Italy: Absorptive capacity matters! The Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-013-9321-z.
  26. Fritsch, M., & Franke, G. (2004). Innovation, regional knowledge spillovers and R&D cooperation. Research Policy, 33(2), 245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fritsch, M., & Slavtchev, V. (2010). How does industry specialization affect the efficiency of regional innovation systems? The Annals of Regional Science, 45(1), 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fu, X., & Gong, Y. (2011). Indigenous and foreign innovation efforts and drivers of technological upgrading: evidence from China. World Development, 39(7), 1213–1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gambardella, A., & Giarratana, M. S. (2013). General technological capabilities, product market fragmentation, and markets for technology. Research Policy, 42(2), 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gans, J. S., & Stern, S. (2003). The product market and the market for “ideas”: Commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 32(2), 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gao, X., Guan, J., & Rousseau, R. (2011). Mapping collaborative knowledge production in China using patent co-inventorships. Scientometrics, 88(2), 343–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gao, X., Guo, X., Sylvan, K. J., & Guan, J. (2010). The Chinese innovation system during economic transition: A scale-independent view. Journal of Informetrics, 4(4), 618–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glass, A. J., & Saggi, K. (1998). International technology transfer and the technology gap. Journal of Development Economics, 55(2), 369–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gross, C. (2013). The growth of China’s technology transfer industry over the next decade: Implications for global markets. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38, 716–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guan, J. C., Mok, C. K., Yam, R. C. M., Chin, K. S., & Pun, K. F. (2006). Technology transfer and innovation performance: Evidence from Chinese firms. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 73(6), 666–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Han, J.-S., & Lee, S.-Y. (2013). The impact of technology transfer contract on a firm’s market value in Korea. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(5), 651–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hong, W. (2008). Decline of the center: The decentralizing process of knowledge transfer of Chinese universities from 1985 to 2004. Research Policy, 37(4), 580–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hu, A. G., & Jefferson, G. H. (2009). A great wall of patents: What is behind China’s recent patent explosion? Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu, A. G., Jefferson, G. H., & Jinchang, Q. (2005). R&D and technology transfer: Firm-level evidence from Chinese industry. Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(4), 780–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang, Y., Audretsch, D., & Hewitt, M. (2013). Chinese technology transfer policy: The case of the national independent innovation demonstration zone of East Lake. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38, 828–835.Google Scholar
  41. Jason, Y.-L., Wang, Y., Salomo, S., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2013). Have Chinese firms learned from their prior technology in-licensing? An analysis based on patent citations. Scientometrics, 95(1), 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jeong, S., Lee, S., & Kim, Y. (2013). Licensing versus selling in transactions for exploiting patented technological knowledge assets in the markets for technology. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(3), 251–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, W. H. A., & Liu, Q. (2011). Patenting and the role of technology markets in regional innovation in China: An empirical analysis. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 22(1), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim, Y. (2009). Choosing between international technology licensing partners: An empirical analysis of U.S. biotechnology firms. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 26(1–2), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koo, J. (2007). Determinants of localized technology spillovers: Role of regional and industrial attributes. Regional Studies, 41(7), 995–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Landry, R., Amara, N., Cloutier, J.-S., & Halilem, N. (2013). Technology transfer organizations: Services and business models. Technovation, 33(12), 431–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lazonick, W. (2004). Indigeneous innovation and economic development: Lessons from China’s leap into the information age. Industrial and Innovation, 11, 273–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee, J., & Win, H. N. (2004). Technology transfer between university research centers and industry in Singapore. Technovation, 24(5), 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li, X. (2009). China’s regional innovation capacity in transition: An empirical approach. Research Policy, 38(2), 338–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li, T., Fu, M., & Fu, X. (2011). Regional technology development path in an open developing economy: Evidence from China. Applied Economics, 45(11), 1405–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liang, L., Chen, L., Wu, Y., & Yuan, J. (2012). The role of Chinese universities in enterprise-university research collaboration. Scientometrics, 90(1), 253–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liao, T.-J., & Yu, C.-M. (2013). The impact of local linkages, international linkages, and absorptive capacity on innovation for foreign firms operating in an emerging economy. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(6), 809–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. (2008). Innovation intermediaries: Why internet marketplaces for technology have not yet met the expectations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 17(1), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu, X. (2010). China’s development model: an alternative strategy for technological catch-up. In X. Fu & L. Soete (Eds.), The Rise of Technololgical Power in the South. MacMillan, Palgrave.Google Scholar
  55. Liu, F., & Sun, Y. (2009). A comparison of the spatial distribution of innovative activities in China and the U.S. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(6), 797–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu, X., & White, S. (2001). Comparing innovation systems: A framework and application to China’s transitional context. Research Policy, 30(7), 1091–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lu, R. (2011). Building engines for growth and competitiveness in China: Experience with special economic zones and industrial clusters. Regional Studies, 45(9), 1292–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lundvall, B.-Å., Intarakumnerd, P., & Vang-Lauridsen, J. (2006). Asia’s innovation systems in transition Cheltenham. UK, Northampton, MA: E. Elgar. http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip062/2005031680.html.
  59. Malik, T. H. (2013). National institutional differences and cross-border university-industry knowledge transfer. Research Policy, 42(3), 776–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mansfield, E., Romeo, A., Schwartz, M., Teece, D., Wagner, S., & Brach, P. (1982). Technology transfer, productivity, and economic policy. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  61. McAdam, R., Miller, K., McAdam, M., & Teague, S. (2012). The development of University Technology Transfer stakeholder relationships at a regional level: Lessons for the future. Technovation, 32(1), 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McGregor, J. (2010) China’s drive for ‘Indigenous Innovation’: A web of industrial policies. American Chamber of Commerce in China.Google Scholar
  63. NBS, N.B.o.S. (2012). Statistical yearbook of China Beijing, China: Statistical Press.Google Scholar
  64. Newman, M. E. (2001). Scientific collaboration networks. I. Network construction and fundamental results. Physical Review E, 64(1), 016131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ning, L. (2007). Economic liberalisation for high-tech industry development? Lessons from China’s response in developing the ICT manufacturing sector compared with the strategies of Korea and Taiwan. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(3), 562–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Osabutey, E. L. C., Williams, K., & Debrah, Y. A. (2013). The potential for technology and knowledge transfers between foreign and local firms: A study of the construction industry in Ghana. Journal of World Business (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  67. Prato, G., & Nepelski, D. (2012). Global technological collaboration network: network analysis of international co-inventions. The Journal of Technology Transfer. doi: 10.1007/s10961-012-9285-4.
  68. Schilling, M. A., & Phelps, C. C. (2007). Interfirm collaboration networks: The impact of large-scale network structure on firm innovation. Management Science, 53(7), 1113–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Sun, Y. (2000). Spatial distribution of patents in China. Regional Studies, 34(5), 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Teece, D. J. (1977). Technology transfer by multinational firms: The resource cost of transferring technological know-how. Economic Journal, 87(346), 242–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang, Y., Pan, X., Chen, Y., & Gu, X. (2013a). Do references in transferred patent documents signal learning opportunities for the receiving firms? Scientometrics, 75(2), 732–751.Google Scholar
  73. Wang, Y., Roijakkers, N., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2013b). Learning-by-licensing: How firms in China benefit from licensing-in technologies. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 60(1), 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang, Y., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Roijakkers, N. (2012). Exploring the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation: A theoretical analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(3), 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang, Y., & Zhou, Z. (2013). The dual role of local sites in assisting firms with developing technological capabilities: Evidence from China. International Business Review, 22(1), 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang, Y., Zhou, Z., & Li-Ying, J. (2013c). The impact of licensed-knowledge attributes on the innovation performance of licensee firms: evidence from the Chinese electronic industry. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(5), 699–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge, ENG and New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. White, H. C., Boorman, S. A., & Breiger, R. L. (1976). Social structure from multiple networks. I. Blockmodels of roles and positions. American Journal of Sociology, 81(4), 730–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yeung, H. W. C. (2009). Regional development and the competitive dynamics of global production networks: An East Asian perspective. Regional Studies, 43(3), 325–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang, H., Patton, D., & Kenney, M. (2013). Building global-class universities: Assessing the impact of the 985 Project. Research Policy, 42(3), 765–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ziegler, N., Ruether, F., Bader, M., & Gassmann, O. (2013). Creating value through external intellectual property commercialization: A desorptive capacity view. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(6), 930–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuandi Wang
    • 1
  • Xin Pan
    • 1
  • Lutao Ning
    • 2
  • Jian Li
    • 3
  • Jin Chen
    • 4
  1. 1.Business School of Sichuan UniversitySichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.School of Business and ManagementUniversity of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.School of Business AdministrationHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  4. 4.School of Economics and ManagementTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations