The development of an entrepreneurial university
- 2.7k Downloads
An entrepreneurial society refers to places where knowledge-based entrepreneurship has emerged as a driving force for economic growth, employment creation and competitiveness. In this context, entrepreneurial universities play an important role as both knowledge-producer and a disseminating institution. In the literature, several studies contributed with relevant findings. Most of these studies reveal a tendency to use case studies to explain this phenomenon justified by the embryonic nature of the topic field, and with the lack of a robust theoretical framework to understand it. No empirical study, however, has highlighted the interrelations among environmental and internal factors that conditioned the development of entrepreneurial universities with the teaching, research and entrepreneurial missions that they need to achieve. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of these interrelations identifying the most critical factors that conditioned these missions and to this end brings a proposal model to measure this phenomenon empirically in the light of the Institutional Economics and the Resource-Based View. The methodology adopted is integrated by the Spanish Entrepreneurial University Scoreboard to identify this phenomenon and Structural Equation Modeling to analyze the relationships among independent and dependent variables that integrate the proposal model of entrepreneurial university. This research could cover invaluable strategies to bring further benefits to society (in terms of the creation of new business and employment) and, in particular, to educational institutions.
KeywordsEntrepreneurial universities Institutional economics Resource-based view Higher education Knowledge transfer Technology transfer
JEL ClassificationM13 (New Firms; Startups) L26 (Entrepreneurship) I23 (Higher Education Research Institutions) I28 (Education Government Policy)
A previous version of this paper was presented at the 2009 Technology Transfer Society Annual Conference (Greensboro, North Carolina, October, 2). We are most grateful to several participants for their comments and suggestions, which have contributed to the improvement of this study. In particular, we highly appreciate comments from Professor Albert N. Link and Professor Sarfraz Mian. We are also grateful to comments and suggestions by two anonymous reviewers, which have decisively contributed to improve this final version of the manuscript. Finally, Maribel Guerrero has received financial support from the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas (Mexico). David Urbano has received financial resources from SEJ2007-60995 (Spanish Ministry of Education and Science) and 2005SGR00858 (Catalan Government’s Department for Universities, Research and Information Society).
- Bygrave, W. D., & Hofer, C. W. (1991). Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(2), 13–22.Google Scholar
- Chandler, G. N., & Lyon, D. W. (2001). Issues of research design and construct measurement in entrepreneurship research: The past decade. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 101–113.Google Scholar
- Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Etzkowitz, H. (2004). The evolution of the entrepreneurial university. International Journal of Technology and Globalization, 1(1), 64–77.Google Scholar
- European Commission. (2005). European innovation scoreboard 2005. http://www.trendchart.org/scoreboards/scoreboard2005/index.cfm. Accessed 25 June 2006.
- European Commission. (2008). European innovation scoreboard 2007. http://www.proinno-europe.eu/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.display&topicID=275&parentID=51#. Accessed 25 September 2008.
- Ewalt, D. M. (2004). America’s most entrepreneurial campuses: Methodology. New York: Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2004/10/21/cx_de_1021_04conncampentrepremeth.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
- Gallagher, M. (2000). The emergence of entrepreneurial public universities in Australia. In Paper Presented at the IMHE General Conference of the OECD Paris, September 2000.Google Scholar
- GEM. (2006). Global entrepreneurship monitor—Spanish database. Wellesley MA: London Business School and Babson College.Google Scholar
- Guerrero, M. (2008). The creation and development of entrepreneurial universities in Spain: An institutional approach, PhD dissertation. Barcelona: Autonomous University of Barcelona.Google Scholar
- Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Kirby, D. (2006). A literature review on entrepreneurial universities: An institutional approach. Working Paper Series, 06/8. Business Economics Department. Autonomous University of Barcelona.Google Scholar
- Hay, D. B., Butt, F., & Kirby, D. A. (2002). Academics as entrepreneurs in a UK university. In G. Williams (Ed.), The enterprising university: Reform, excellence and equity. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- INE. (2008). Estadística de la enseñanza universitaria en España. Curso 2006–2007. Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España. http://www.ine.es/jaxi/menu.do?type=pcaxis&path=/t13/p405&file=inebase. Accessed 28 September 2008.
- Institute for Higher Education Policy. (2006). Berlin principles on ranking of higher education institutions. UNESCO. http://www.ihep.org/Publications/publications-detail.cfm?id=3. Accessed 28 September 2007.
- IPYME. (2006). Iniciativas Emprendedoras en la universidad Española. Dirección General de Política de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa. Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio, Spain. http://www.ipyme.org/IPYME/es-ES/IniciativaEmprendedora/Promocion/AmbitoEducativo/. Accessed 27 September 2008.
- Moed, H. F. (2006). Bibliometric rankings of world universities. Leiden University, Netherlands: Centre for Science and Technology.Google Scholar
- North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- North, D. C. (2005). Understanding the process of economic change. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Page, S. (1996). Rankings of Canadian universities, 1995: More problems in interpretation. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, XXVI(2), 47–58.Google Scholar
- PM, O. E. (2007). Solicitudes de patentes nacionales presentadas por universidades en el año 1997 y durante el período 2000–2007. Madrid, Spain: Unidad de Apoyo Dirección General Servicio de Estudios.Google Scholar
- Porter, M. (1985). Competitive advantage. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Röpke, J. (1998). The entrepreneurial university, innovation, academic knowledge creation and regional development in a globalized economy. Working Paper No.3, Department of Economics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany.Google Scholar
- Ruiz, J., Parellada, F. S., & Vecina, J. M. (2004). Creación de empresas y universidad. Cadiz: Fundación Universidad Empresa de la Provincia de Cádiz.Google Scholar
- Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Cited in O’Shea, R., Allen, T.J., Chevalier, A., & Roche, F. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spin-off performance of US universities. Research Policy, 34(7), 994–1009.Google Scholar
- Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. L. (1997). Academic capitalism: Politics, policies and the entrepreneurial university. London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
- UNIVERSIA. (2006). Empresas de base tecnológica en las universidades. http://investigacion.universia.es/spin-off/empresas/unis/index.htm. Accessed 28 September 2008.
- Urbano, D. (2006). New business creation in Catalonia: Support measures and attitudes towards entrepreneurship. Barcelona, Spain: Generalitat de Catalunya, CIDEM.Google Scholar
- Usher, A., & Savino, M. (2006). Estudio global de los rankings universitarios. Calidad de Educación, 25, 33–53.Google Scholar
- Webometrics. (2005). Methodology of ranking: Web de las Universidades en el Mundo. http://www.webometrics.info/methodology_es.html. Accessed 28 September 2008.
- Welter, F. (2005). Entrepreneurial behavior in differing environments. In D. B. Audretsch, H. Grimm & C. W. Wessner (Eds.), Local heroes in the global village globalization and the new entrepreneurship policies (93–112). International Studies in Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer.Google Scholar