The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 76–94

The limits to internationalization of scientific research collaboration

Article

Abstract

This study analyses international research collaboration for eight science-based technologies in the Netherlands for the period 1988–2004. It is found that the share of international research collaborations in research collaboration is high, but not rising during the period investigated. This result suggests that the process of internationalization has reached an end. It is also found that collaboration between academic and non-academic organizations is less likely to take place at the international level than collaboration between academic organizations. This suggests that collaborating within national research systems helps academia, firms and governmental organizations to overcome differences in norms, values and incentives. Nonetheless, international collaboration between academic and non-academic organizations is also frequently occurring. Some consider these collaborations as undesirable, insofar academic research funded domestically is ‘leaking’ to foreign firms in such research collaborations. Such unwanted knowledge spillovers has lead some to plea for a ‘technology-nationalism’ in science policy instead of a ‘techno-globalization’. An analysis of the ‘balance of trade’ in international collaborations between Dutch academia and foreign firms and between Dutch firms and foreign academia shows that fears for unwanted knowledge spillovers are unfounded.

Keywords

Research collaboration Internationalization University–industry collaboration 

JEL Classifications

O32 O38 

References

  1. Archibugi, D., & Iammarino, S. (1999). The policy implications of the globalisation of innovation. Research Policy, 28, 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archibugi, D., & Michie, J. (1997). Technological globalization or national systems of innovation. Futures, 29(2), 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breschi, S., & Lissoni, F. (2003). Mobility and social networks: Localised knowledge spillovers revisited. CESPRI Working Paper 142, Bocconi University Milan.Google Scholar
  4. Caloghirou, Y., Tsakanikas, A., & Vonortas, N. S. (2001). University-industry cooperation in the context of the European framework programmes. Journal of Technology Transfer, 26, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cantwell, J. (1995). The globalisation of technology: What remains of the product cycle model? Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19(1), 155–174.Google Scholar
  6. Carlsson, B. (2006). Internationalization of innovation systems: A survey of the literature. Research Policy, 35(1), 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chung, S. (2002). Catching up through international linkages: Science, technology and the Korean experience. Science and Public Policy, 29(6), 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cockburn, I. M., & Henderson, R. M. (1998). Absorptive capacity, coauthoring behavior, and the organization of research in drug discovery. Journal of Industrial Economics, 46, 157–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dasgupta, P., & David, P. A. (1994). Toward a new economics of science. Research Policy, 23, 487–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edler, J. (Forthcoming). Creative internationalization: Widening the perspectives on analysis and policy regarding international R&D activities. Journal of Technology Transfer, in press.Google Scholar
  11. Edler, J., & Boekholt, P. (2001). Benchmarking national public policies to exploit international science and industrial research: A synopsis of current developments. Science and Public Policy, 28(4), 313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and “mode 2” to a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy, 29, 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Etzkowitz, H., Webster, A., Gebhardt, C., & Terra, B. R. C. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: Evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy, 29, 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frenken, K. (2002). A new indicator of European integration and an application to collaboration in scientific research. Economic Systems Research, 14(4), 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frenken, K., Hoekman, J., & van Oort, F. (2007). Towards a European research area. Rotterdam/The Hague: NAi Publishers/RPB, www.rpb.nl.
  16. Frenken, K., Hölzl, W., & de Vor, F. (2005). The citation impact of research collaborations: The case of European biotechnology and applied microbiology (1988–2002). Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 22, 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Glänzel, W. (2001). National characteristics in international scientific co-authorship relations. Scientometrics, 51, 69–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Godin, B. (1995). Research and the practice of publication in industries. Research Policy, 25, 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Godin, B., & Gingras, Y. (2000). The place of universities in the system of knowledge production. Research Policy, 29(2), 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hagedoorn, J. (2002). Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960. Research Policy, 31, 477–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hagedoorn, J., Link, A. N., & Vonortas, N. S. (2000). Research partnerships. Research Policy, 4–5, 567–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katz, J.S., & Martin, B. R. (1997). What is research collaboration? Research Policy, 26(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laudel, G. (2001). Collaboration, creativity and rewards: Why and how scientists collaborate. International Journal of Technology Management, 22(7/8), 762–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levy, R., Roux, P., & Wolff, S. (forthcoming). An analysis of science-industry collaborative patterns in a large European university. Journal of Technology Transfer, in press.Google Scholar
  26. Long, J. S., & Freese, J. (2003). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata. Stata Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lundberg, J., Tomson, G., Lundkvist, I., Skar, J., & Brommels, M. (2006). Collaboration uncovered: Exploring the adequacy of measuring university-industry collaboration through co-authorship and co-funding. Scientometrics, 69(3), 575–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer, M. (2000). Does Science push technology? Patents citing scientific literature. Research Policy, 29, 409–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer, M., Sinilainen, T., & Timm Utecht, J. (2003). Towards hybrid triple helix indicators: A study of university-related patents and a survey of academic inventors. Scientometrics, 58(2), 321–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mowery, D. C. (1998). The changing structure of the US national innovation system: Implications of international conflict and cooperation in R&D policy. Research Policy, 27, 639–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Narin, F., Hamiltion, K., & Olivastro, D. (1997). The increasing linkage between U.S. technology and public science. Research Policy, 26, 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Narin, F., Stevens, K., & Whitlow, E. S. (1991). Scientific cooperation in Europe and the citation of multinationally authored papers. Scientometrics, 21(3), 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Niosi, J., & Bellon, B. (1994). The global interdependence of national innovation systems: Evidence, limits and implications. Technology in Society, 16(2), 173–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ostry, S., & Nelson, R. (1995). Techno-nationalism and techno-globalism: Conflict and cooperation. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  35. Pavitt, K. (1984). Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy, 13, 343–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ponds, R., Van Oort, F. G., & Frenken, K. (2007). The geographical and institutional proximity of research collaboration. Papers in Regional Science, 86(3), 423–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Powell, W. W., Koput, L., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 116–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Price, D. D., & Beaver, D. J. (1966). Collaboration in an invisible college. American Psychologist, 21(11), 1011–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rallet, A., & Torre, A. (1999). Is geographical proximity necessary in the innovation networks in the era of global economy? Geojournal, 49(4), 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Singh, J. (2005). Collaborative networks as determinants of knowledge diffusion patterns. Management Science, 51(5), 756–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. L. (1997). Academic capitalism: Politics, policies and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Stichweh, R. (1996). Science in the system of world society. Social Science Information, 35, 327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stuart, T. (2000). Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms: A study of growth and innovation rates in a high-technology industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 668–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sung, T. K., & Carlsson, B. (2003). The evolution of a technological system: The case of CNC machine tools in Korea. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 13(4), 435–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Looy, B., Zimmerman, E., Veugelers, R., Verbeek, E., Mello, J., & Debackere, K. (2003). Do science-technology interactions pay off when developing technology? Scientometrics, 57(3), 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wagner, C. (2001). The elusive partnership: Science and foreign policy. Science and Public Policy, 29(6), 409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wagner, C. (2005). Six case studies of international collaboration in science. Scientometrics, 62(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wagner, C., Brahmakalum, I., Jackson, B., Yoda, T., & Wong, A. (2001). Science and technology collaboration: Building capacity in developing countries? Santa Monica, CA: Rand.Google Scholar
  49. Wagner-Doebler, R. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of collaboration behaviour since, 1800 – From a bibliometric point of view. Scientometrics, 52, 503–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weingart, P. (1997). From ‘‘finalization’’ to ‘‘mode 2’’: Old wine in new bottles? Social Science Information, 36(4), 591–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wooldridge, J. M. (2003). Introductory econometrics – A modern approach (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.Google Scholar
  52. Zitt, M., & Bassecoulard, E. (2004). Internationalization in science in the prism of bibliometric indicators. In H. Moed, W. Glänzel, & U. Schmoch (Eds.), Handbook of quantitative science and technology research: The use of publication and patent statistics in studies of S&T systems. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Economic Geography, Urban and Regional Research Centre Utrecht (URU), Faculty of GeosciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.The Netherlands Institute for Spatial Research (RPB)The HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations