A Controlled Evaluation of a High School Biomedical Pipeline Program: Design and Methods
- 407 Downloads
Given limited funding for school-based science education, non-school-based programs have been developed at colleges and universities to increase the number of students entering science- and health-related careers and address critical workforce needs. However, few evaluations of such programs have been conducted. We report the design and methods of a controlled trial to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program’s Summer Residential Program (SRP), a 25-year-old university-based biomedical pipeline program. This 5-year matched cohort study uses an annual survey to assess educational and career outcomes among four cohorts of students who participate in the SRP and a matched comparison group of applicants who were not chosen to participate in the SRP. Matching on sociodemographic and academic background allows control for potential confounding. This design enables the testing of whether the SRP has an independent effect on educational- and career-related outcomes above and beyond the effects of other factors such as gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and pre-intervention academic preparation. The results will help determine which curriculum components contribute most to successful outcomes and which students benefit most. After 4 years of follow-up, the results demonstrate high response rates from SRP participants and the comparison group with completion rates near 90 %, similar response rates by gender and ethnicity, and little attrition with each additional year of follow-up. This design and methods can potentially be replicated to evaluate and improve other biomedical pipeline programs, which are increasingly important for equipping more students for science- and health-related careers.
KeywordsEducation Program evaluation Science Students
This work was supported by the Science Educational Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health (R25RR026011). The authors thank Justine Aguilar-Blake, Diana Austria, Nell Curran, Anna Felberg, and Dale Lemmerick for contributions to SMYSP and follow-up evaluation. In-kind resources are provided by Stanford University, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, and the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System.
- American Psychological Association, Presidential Task Force on Educational Disparities (2012) Ethnic and racial disparities in education: psychology’s contributions to understanding and reducing disparities. Retrieved on 1 Feb 2013, from http://www.apa.org/ed/resources/racial-disparities.aspx
- Beck P, Githens JH, Clinkscales D, Yamamoto D, Riley CM, Ward HP (1978) Recruitment and retention program for minority and disadvantaged students. J Med Educ 53(8):651–657Google Scholar
- Cregler LL (1993) Enrichment programs to create a pipeline to biomedical science careers. J Assoc Acad Minor Physicians 4(4):127–131Google Scholar
- Cummings P, McKnight B (2004) Analysis of matched cohort data. Stata J 4(3):274–281Google Scholar
- Davis JA, Davidson CP (1982) The Med-COR study: preparing high school students for health careers. J Med Educ 57(7):527–534Google Scholar
- Marshall EC (1975) An experiment in health careers recruitment: a summer program at Indiana University. J Am Optom Assoc 46(12):1284–1292Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education (2007) The condition of education 2007 (NCES 2007–064). U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education (2011) The nation’s report card: science 2009, national assessment of educational progress (NAEP) at grades 4, 8, and 12 (NCES 2011-451). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington. Retrieved on 1 Feb 2013, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007064.pdf
- Rosenbaum JT, Martin TM, Farris KH, Rosenbaum RB, Neuwelt EA (2007) Can medical schools teach high school students to be scientists? Fed Am Soc Exp Biol J 21:1954–1957Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education (2007) Report of the Academic Competitiveness Council. U.S. Department of Education, Washington. Retrieved on 1 Feb 2013, from http://cahsi.cs.utep.edu/Portals/0/Resources/Literature/Report_of_the_AcademicCompetitiveness_Council.pdf
- U.S. Department of Education (2011) Statement by U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan on the Release of the NAEP Science Report Card. U.S. Department of Education, Washington. Retrieved on 1 Feb 2013, from http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/statement-us-secretary-education-arne-duncan-release-naep-science-report-card