Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions
- 302 Downloads
The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.
KeywordsSimulations Science education Research Languages Websites Online resources Translation
This work would not have been possible without the expert simulations created by The PhET Team, particularly its superb software developers Sam Reid, Chris Malley, John Blanco, Mike Dubson, and Jonathan Olson. PhET is supported by the National Science Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, The Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education (ERCSME) at King Saud University, JILA and the University of Colorado. ERCSME is funded by the Ministry of Higher Education in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, ERCSME is grateful for the Ministry of Higher Education and King Saud University for their continuous support.
- Apache Software Foundation (2010) Apache Wicket, http://wicket.apache.org
- Deitsch A, Czarnecki D (2001) Java internationalization. In: Loukides M (ed). O’Reilly & Associates, Inc., SebastopolGoogle Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization (2007) ISO 639-1:2002, http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=22109
- International Organization for Standardization (2010) ISO 3166-1 country code decoding table, http://www.iso.org/iso/iso-3166-1_decoding_table.html
- IUPAC (2008) http://old.iupac.org/index.html
- Oracle (2010) JavaTM 2 Platform Standard Ed. 5.0 Class MessageFormat, http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/java/text/MessageFormat.html
- PhET Interactive Simulations (2009) Research page: http://PhET.colorado.edu/research/index.php
- PhET Team (2007) The PhET Translation Utility. http://phet.colorado.edu/contribute/translation-utility.php)
- The Unicode Consortium (2009) The unicode standard, version 5.2.0, defined by: the unicode standard, version 5.2. The Unicode Consortium, Mountain View, CA (http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.2.0/)