Journal of Science Education and Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 60–73 | Cite as

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

  • Bethany Fralick
  • Jennifer Kearn
  • Stephen Thompson
  • Jed Lyons


The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question “How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?” Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.


Draw Scientist Engineer Middle school Perception 



This material is based upon work supported by National Science Foundation Award 0440568.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethany Fralick
    • 1
  • Jennifer Kearn
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephen Thompson
    • 3
  • Jed Lyons
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Engineering and Computing EducationUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Instruction and Teacher EducationUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

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