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Journal of Statistical Physics

, Volume 145, Issue 4, pp 891–918 | Cite as

Tensor Network States and Geometry

  • G. Evenbly
  • G. Vidal
Article

Abstract

Tensor network states are used to approximate ground states of local Hamiltonians on a lattice in D spatial dimensions. Different types of tensor network states can be seen to generate different geometries. Matrix product states (MPS) in D=1 dimensions, as well as projected entangled pair states (PEPS) in D>1 dimensions, reproduce the D-dimensional physical geometry of the lattice model; in contrast, the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) generates a (D+1)-dimensional holographic geometry. Here we focus on homogeneous tensor networks, where all the tensors in the network are copies of the same tensor, and argue that certain structural properties of the resulting many-body states are preconditioned by the geometry of the tensor network and are therefore largely independent of the choice of variational parameters. Indeed, the asymptotic decay of correlations in homogeneous MPS and MERA for D=1 systems is seen to be determined by the structure of geodesics in the physical and holographic geometries, respectively; whereas the asymptotic scaling of entanglement entropy is seen to always obey a simple boundary law—that is, again in the relevant geometry. This geometrical interpretation offers a simple and unifying framework to understand the structural properties of, and helps clarify the relation between, different tensor network states. In addition, it has recently motivated the branching MERA, a generalization of the MERA capable of reproducing violations of the entropic boundary law in D>1 dimensions.

Keywords

Quantum many-body Tensor network states Entanglement Matrix product state Multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics and Physicsthe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsWaterlooCanada

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