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Journal of Statistical Physics

, Volume 128, Issue 1–2, pp 447–483 | Cite as

Phase Transitions and Spatio-Temporal Fluctuations in Stochastic Lattice Lotka–Volterra Models

  • Mauro MobiliaEmail author
  • Ivan T Georgiev
  • Uwe C Täuber
Article

Abstract

We study the general properties of stochastic two-species models for predator-prey competition and coexistence with Lotka–Volterra type interactions defined on a d-dimensional lattice. Introducing spatial degrees of freedom and allowing for stochastic fluctuations generically invalidates the classical, deterministic mean-field picture. Already within mean-field theory, however, spatial constraints, modeling locally limited resources, lead to the emergence of a continuous active-to-absorbing state phase transition. Field-theoretic arguments, supported by Monte Carlo simulation results, indicate that this transition, which represents an extinction threshold for the predator population, is governed by the directed percolation universality class. In the active state, where predators and prey coexist, the classical center singularities with associated population cycles are replaced by either nodes or foci. In the vicinity of the stable nodes, the system is characterized by essentially stationary localized clusters of predators in a sea of prey. Near the stable foci, however, the stochastic lattice Lotka–Volterra system displays complex, correlated spatio-temporal patterns of competing activity fronts. Correspondingly, the population densities in our numerical simulations turn out to oscillate irregularly in time, with amplitudes that tend to zero in the thermodynamic limit. Yet in finite systems these oscillatory fluctuations are quite persistent, and their features are determined by the intrinsic interaction rates rather than the initial conditions. We emphasize the robustness of this scenario with respect to various model perturbations.

Keyword

Population dynamics spatio-temporal patterns stochastic fluctuations nonequilibrium phase transitions 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Mobilia
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ivan T Georgiev
    • 2
    • 3
  • Uwe C Täuber
    • 2
  1. 1.Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for NanoScience, Department of PhysicsLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and EngineeringVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgU.S.A.
  3. 3.Integrated Finance LimitedNew YorkU.S.A.

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