Journal of Solution Chemistry

, Volume 35, Issue 9, pp 1315–1328 | Cite as

Refractive Indices, Densities and Excess Molar Volumes of Monoalcohols + Water

Original Paper


The refractive index, n D , and density, ρ, of binary mixtures of monoalcohols + water, have been measured at a temperature of 298.15,K and atmospheric pressure. The variation of the refractive indices of these solutions has also been determined with temperature in the range T = (278.15 to 338.15) K and atmospheric pressure. A comparative study has been made of the refractive indices obtained experimentally and those calculated by means of the Lorentz-Lorenz [Theory of Electrons, Dover Phoenix (1952)] and Gladstone-Dale relations [Trans. R. Soc. London 148:887–902 (1858)]; in all cases, the Gladstone–Dale equation was seen to afford values similar to those obtained experimentally. Calculations have been made of the excess molar volumes, V E, and the molar refraction deviations, ΔR, of these mixtures and the differences between the experimental values for refractive index and those obtained by means of the Gladstone–Dale equation. Values of V E were compared with others in the literature. In all cases the V E values were negative, and in all cases, except in the methanol + water, ΔR showed a maximum for x = 0.8.


Monoalcohols Refractive index Density Lorentz-Lorenz relation Gladstone-Dale relation Excess molar volume Molar refraction deviations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Martin, A.N.: Principios de Fisico-química para Farmacia y Biología. Alhambra, S.L, Madrid (1967)Google Scholar
  2. Dar, A.: Tecnología Farmaceutica. S.A Acribia, Zaragoza (1979)Google Scholar
  3. Crockford, H.D., Knight, B.: Fundamentos de Fisico-Química. C.E.C.S.A, Madrid (1968)Google Scholar
  4. Glasstone, S.: Tratado de Química Física. Aguilar, Madrid (1970)Google Scholar
  5. Belda, R., Herraez, J.V., Diez, O.: Rheological study and thermodynamic analysis of the binary system (water/ethanol): influence of concentration. Phys. Chem. Liquids 42, 467–479 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. Belda, R., Herraez, J.V., Diez, O.: A study of the refractive index and surface tension synergy of the binary water/ethanol:influence of concentration. Phys. Chem. Liquids 43, 91–101 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. Tasic, A.Z., Djordjevic, B.D., Grozdanic, D.K., Radojkovic, N.: Use of mixing rules in predicting refractive indices and specific refractivities for some binary liquid mixtures. Chem. Eng. Data 37, 310–313 (1992)Google Scholar
  8. Lorentz, A.: Theory of Electrons. Dover Phoenix (1952)Google Scholar
  9. Gladstone, J.H., Dale, J.: On the influence of temperature on the refraction of light. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 148, 887–902 (1858)Google Scholar
  10. Heller, W.: The determination of refractive indices of colloidal particles by means of a new mixture rule or from measurements of light scattering. Phys. Rev. 68, 5–10 (1945)Google Scholar
  11. Arbad, B.R., Lande, M.K., Wankhede, N.N., Wankhede, D.S.: Viscosities, ultrasonic velocities at (288.15 and 298.15) K, and refractive indices at (298.15) K of binary mixtures of 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane with dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and propylene carbonate. J. Chem. Eng. Data 51, 68–72 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. Aminabhavi, T.M.: Use of mixing rules in the analysis of data for binary liquid mixtures. J. Chem. Eng. Data 29, 54–55 (1984)Google Scholar
  13. Levine, I.: Fisicoquimica. Mc Graw-Hill, México DF (1996)Google Scholar
  14. Herraez, J.V., Belda, R.: Viscous synergy of pure mixtures in water and its relation to concentration. J. Solution Chem. 33, 117–129 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. Tejraj, M.A.: Thermodynamic interactions in binary mixtures of ethenylbenzene with methanol, ethanol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, and hexan-1-ol in the temperature range 298.15–308.15 K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 44, 1291–1297 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. Baraldi, P., Giorgini, M.G., Manzini, D., Marchetti, A., Tassi, L.: Density, refractive index, and related properties for butanone/n-hexane binary mixtures at various temperatures. J. Solution Chem. 31, 873–893 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. Lide, D.R.: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 73rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1992)Google Scholar
  18. Riddick, J.A., Bunger, W.B., Sakano, T.K.: Organic Solvents: Physical Properties and Methods of Purification. 4th edn. Wiley, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  19. Mehra, R.: Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane with n-alkanols at different temperatures. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) 115, 147–154 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. Arce, A., Blanco, A., Soto, A., Vidal, I.: Densities, refractive indices, and excess molar volumes of the ternary systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol and their binary mixtures at 298.15 K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 38, 336–340 (1993)Google Scholar
  21. Benson, G.C., Kiyohara, O.: Thermodynamics of aqueous mixtures of nonelectrolytes. I. Excess volumes of water-n-alcohol mixtures at several temperatures. J. Solution Chem. 9, 791–804 (1980)Google Scholar
  22. Westmeir, S.: Excess enthalpy, free excess enthalpy, excess volume and viscosity of selected binary mixtures. Part II: The water-methanol and water-ethanol systems. Chemische Technik (Leipzig, Germany) 28, 350–353 (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ThermodynamicsFaculty of Pharmacy, University of ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations