Effects of geometry and rheological parameters of large basin on the SH-wave response of sub-basin in the basin-sub-basin models

  • J. P. NarayanEmail author
  • Garima Yadav
Original Article


The effects of impedance and shape-ratio of large basin on the nature of occurrence of 2D resonance, spectral amplifications, sub-basin-induced Love (SBIL)-waves and sub-basin-transduced Love (SBTL)-waves and associated differential ground motion (DGM) across the sub-basin of the basin-sub-basin models are documented in this paper. The analysis of SH-wave responses of the considered small basin, large basin, and various basin-sub-basin models reveals that the presence of large basin does not change the occurrence of 2D resonance phenomenon in the sub-basin. But, the presence of large basin reduces the fundamental frequency (\( {F}_{02D}^{SLB}\Big) \) of sub-basin and increases the spectral amplifications and amplitude of the SBIL-wave in the sub-basin. The cause of reduction of \( {F}_{02D}^{SLB} \) of sub-basin is the decrease of the lowest fundamental mode of vibration of basin-sub-basin model in the vertical direction. A considerable effect of location of sub-basin, impedance, and shape-ratio of the large basin on the amplitudes of both the SBIL- and SBTL-waves is observed. The amplification of SBTL-wave in the sub-basin is due to the drop of impedance and the decrease of wavelength of SBTL-wave in the vertical direction. A decrease of DGM with an increase of span and decrease of shape-ratio of the large basin is obtained. The obtained largest DGM of the order of 1.85 × 10−3 near the edge of sub-basin for 1 cm/s particle velocity at basement level calls for further study on the complex basin and sub-basin interaction effects on the ground motion characteristics for earthquake engineering purposes.


Basin and sub-basin effects Basin-induced and transduced Love waves Differential ground motion 2D resonance and finite-difference simulation 



Authors are thankful to the unknown reviewer for his valuable comments, questions, and suggestions that have led to the great improvements in the manuscript.


  1. Aoi S, Morikawa N, Fujiwara H (2008) Basin and sub-basin response to long-period ground motion: implication from the 3D finite-difference simulation. In: The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (14WCEE), Beijing, China, October 12–17Google Scholar
  2. Bard PY, Bouchon M (1980) The seismic response of sediment-filled valleys. Part 1. The case of incident SH waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 70:1263–1286Google Scholar
  3. Bard PY, Bouchon M (1985) The two-dimensional resonance of sediment-filled valleys. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75:519–541Google Scholar
  4. Dobry R, Vucetic M (1987) State-of-the-art report: dynamic properties and response of soft clay deposits. Sociedad Mexicana de Mecanica de Suelos 2:51–87Google Scholar
  5. Emmerich H, Korn M (1987) Incorporation of attenuation into time-domain computations of seismic wave fields. Geophysics 52(9):1252–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Graves RW (1995) Preliminary analysis of long-period basin response in the Los Angeles region from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 22:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hall JF, Beck JL (1986) Structural damage in Mexico city. Geophys Res Lett 13:589–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hatayama K, Kanno T, Kudo K (2007) Control factors of spatial variation of long-period strong ground motions in the Yufutsu sedimentary basin, Hokkaido, during the Mw 8.0 2003 Tokachi-oki, Japan, earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 97:1308–1323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Israeli M, Orszag SA (1981) Approximation of radiation boundary conditions. J Comp Phys 41:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang T, Kuribayashi E (1988) The three-dimensional resonance of axisymmetric sediment-fields. Soils Found 28:130–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kawase H (2002) Site effects on strong ground motions in ‘International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Ed. Lee et al.’, part B, chapter 61, 1013–1030Google Scholar
  12. Kawase H, Aki K (1989) A study on the response of a soft basin for incident S, P, and Rayleigh waves with special reference to the long duration observed in Mexico city. Bull Seismol Soc Am 79:1361–1382Google Scholar
  13. Kristeck J, Moczo P (2003) Seismic wave propagation in viscoelastic media with material discontinuities – a 3D 4th order staggered grid finite difference modeling. Bull Seismol Soc Am 93:2273–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar S, Narayan JP (2008) Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave propagation in seismic microzonation. J Earth Syst Sci 117(S2):731–748. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar N, Narayan JP (2018) Quantification of site-city interaction effects on the response of structure under double resonance condition. Geophys J Int 212:422–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Narayan JP (2005) Study of basin-edge effects on the ground motion characteristics using 2.5-D modeling. Pure Appl Geophys 162:273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Narayan JP (2010) Effects of impedance contrast and soil thickness on the basin transduced Rayleigh waves and associated differential ground motion. Pure Appl Geophys 167:1485–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Narayan JP (2012) Effects of P-wave and S-wave impedance contrast on the characteristics of basin transduced Rayleigh waves. Pure Appl Geophys 169:693–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Narayan JP, Kumar V (2013) A fourth-order accurate finite-difference program for the simulation of SH-wave propagation in heterogeneous viscoelastic medium. Geofizika 30:173–189Google Scholar
  20. Narayan JP, Sahar D (2014) 3D viscoelastic finite-difference code and modelling of basement focusing effects on ground motion characteristics. Comput Geosci 18:1023–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Narayan JP, Sharma ML, Kumar A (2002) A seismological report on the January 26, 2001 earthquake at Bhuj, India. Seismol Res Lett 73:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nath SK, Sengupta P, Srivastav SK, Bhattacharya SN, Dattatrayam RS, Prakash R, Gupta HV (2003) Estimation of S-wave site response in and around Delhi region from weak motion data. J Earth Syst Sci 112(3):441–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paolucci R (1999) Shear resonance frequencies of alluvial valleys by Rayleigh’s method. Earthquake Spectra 15:503–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roten D, Fah D, Cornou C, Giardini D (2006) 2D resonances in Alpine valleys identified from ambient vibration wavefields. Geophys J Int 165:889–905. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Semblat JF, Kham M, Parara E, Bard PY, Pitilakis K, Makra K, Raptakis D (2005) Site effects: basin geometry vs soil layering. Soil Dyn Earthquake Eng 25(7–10):529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earthquake EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations