Journal of Seismology

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 995–1016 | Cite as

Tomographic imaging of the NW edge of the Hellenic volcanic arc

  • Andreas KarakonstantisEmail author
  • Panayotis Papadimitriou
  • Christos Millas
  • Ioannis Spingos
  • Ioannis Fountoulakis
  • George Kaviris
Original Article


The broader South Aegean area is characterized by the convergence of the African and Eurasian lithospheric tectonic plates at a rate of approximately 30 mm/year, resulting in a complex and intense deformation of the Aegean (McClusky et al. Geophys. Res. 105: 5695–5719, 2000). The Saronikos Gulf, situated in the NW termination of the Hellenic volcanic arc (Central Aegean Sea), is an area of special geophysical interest due to the variety of the recorded seismicity, regarding both the origin (tectonic, volcanic) and the focal depths. The presence of Plio-Quaternary volcanic centers and the complex seismicity distribution urge the need of detailed research on the geophysical properties such as seismic velocities, revealing possible presence of magmatic bodies or geothermal fluids. In the present study, more than 3000 manually revised events were located using a local 1-D layered velocity model. The main spatiotemporal clusters are concentrated along the Leuces and Methana-Poros E-W striking neotectonic fault zones. A local earthquake tomography (LET) was performed, using body-wave (P and S) travel time data, to investigate small to medium scale (~ 10 km) anomalies that can be related to local neotectonic or volcanic patterns. Major shallow ~ E-W to NW-SE trending discontinuities between positive (to the north) and negative (to the south) VP perturbations, anticorrelated to the respective VS image, are identified south of Aigina Island. These results are mainly related to the principal local stress orientation and fault zones (~ E-W to NW-SE strike), such as the Moni, Anghistri, and Leuces, whereas the respective Vp/Vs ratio values imply the presence of possible magmatic features which can be linked to the Plio-Quaternary NW edge of the Hellenic volcanic arc and hydrothermal activity ENE of Poros Island.


Local earthquake tomography Local velocity model Magmatic intrusions Volcanic arc Saronikos, Greece 



We acknowledge support of this study by the project “HELPOS - Hellenic Plate Observing System” (MIS 5002697) which is implemented under the Action “Reinforcement of the Research and Innovation Infrastructure”, funded by the Operational Programme “Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” (NSRF 2014-2020) and co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund). We would like to thank Dr. Ivan Koulakov for providing the LOTOS code and his useful advice on our work, Ms. Kyriaki Drymoni, Ph.D. candidate in Royal Holloway, University of London, for her useful advice in matters concerning active magmatic systems, and the two anonymous reviewers for their creative comments and suggestions. Special thanks are dedicated to the scientists, post-graduate students, and personnel who participated in the installation or maintenance of the stations belonging to the HUSN and assisted to the signal processing and manual location of the recorded seismicity. The figures are produced using ArcGIS and Surfer, Golden Software and GMT (Wessel and Smith 1995).

Supplementary material

10950_2019_9849_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (7.3 mb)
ESM 1 (JPG 7452 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (531 kb)
ESM 2 (JPG 530 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (11.2 mb)
ESM 3 (JPG 11432 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (1.2 mb)
ESM 4 (JPG 1221 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (1.1 mb)
ESM 5 (JPG 1110 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (8 mb)
ESM 6 (JPG 8209 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM7_ESM.jpg (7 mb)
ESM 7 (JPG 7159 kb)
10950_2019_9849_MOESM8_ESM.docx (23 kb)
ESM 8 (DOCX 23 kb)


  1. Alexandrakis C, Calò M, Bouchaala F, Vavryčuk V (2014) Velocity structure and the role of fluids in the West Bohemia seismic zone. Solid Earth 5:863–872. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anders B, Reischmann T, Kostopoulos D (2007) Zircon geochronology of basement rocks from the Pelagonian zone, Greece: constraints on the pre-alpine evolution of the westernmost internal Hellenides. Int J Earth Sci 96:639–661Google Scholar
  3. Biju-Duval B, Bizon G, Bizon JJ (1974) Données nouvelles et problèmes concernant le Néogène méditerranéen à terre et en men. Abstract, 24th Congr., CIESM MonacoGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlson RL (2001) The effects of temperature, pressure, and alteration on seismic properties of diabase dike rocks from DSDP/ODP hole 504B. Geophys Res Lett 28(20):3979–3982. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiarabba C, Frepoli A (1997) Minimum 1D velocity models in central and southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations. Ann Geophys 40(4):937–954Google Scholar
  6. Coward M, Dietrich D (1989) Alpine tectonics - an overview. Geol Soc Spec Publ 45:1–29Google Scholar
  7. Dietrich VJ, Mercolli I, Oberhänsli R (1988) Dazite, High-Alumina Basalte und Andesite als Produkte Amphibol dominierter Differentiation (Ägina und Methana, Ägäischer Inselbogen). Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 68(1):21–39Google Scholar
  8. Dimitriadis I, Papazachos C, Panagiotopoulos D, Hatzidimitriou P, Bohnhoff M, Rische M, Meier T (2010) P and S velocity structures of the Santorini Colombo volcanic system (Aegean Sea, Greece) obtained by non-linear inversion of travel times and its tectonic implications. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 195(1):13–30Google Scholar
  9. Dinc AN, Koulakov I, Thorwart M, Rabbel W, Flueh ER, Arroyo I, Taylor W, Alvarado G (2010) Local earthquake tomography of central Costa Rica: transition from seamount to ridge subduction. Geophys J Int 183:286–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dotsika E, Lykoudis S, Poutoukis D (2010) Spatial distribution of the isotopic composition of precipitation and spring water in Greece. Glob Planet Chang 71:141–149Google Scholar
  11. Doutsos T, Piper G, Boronkay K, Koukouvelas I (1993) Kinematics of the central Hellenides. Tectonics 12:936–953Google Scholar
  12. Drakatos G, Karantonis G, Stavrakakis G (1997) P-wave crustal tomography of Greece with use of an accurate 2-point ray tracer. Ann Geofis XL(1):25–36Google Scholar
  13. Drakatos G, Melis N, Papanastassiou D, Karastathis V, Papadopoulos G, Stavrakakis G (2002) 3-D crustal velocity structure from inversion of local earthquake data in Attiki (Central Greece) region. Nat Hazards 27(N1–2):1–14Google Scholar
  14. Drakatos G, Karastathis V, Makris J, Papoulia J, Stavrakakis G (2005) 3D crustal structure in the neotectonic basin of the Gulf of Saronikos (Greece). Tectonophysics 400(1–4):55–65Google Scholar
  15. Dunning J, Douglas B, Miller M, Mcdonald S (1994) The role of the chemical environment in frictional deformation—stress-corrosion cracking and comminution. Pure Appl Geophys 143(1–3):151–178Google Scholar
  16. Efstathiou A, Tzanis A, Chailas S, Stamatakis M (2012) Imaging of the Methana volcanic complex, Greece, with magnetotelluric and aeromagnetic data. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 22–28 April 2012 (poster session:
  17. Elliott T, Plank T, Zindler A, White W, Bourdon B (1997) Element transport from slab to volcanic front at the Mariana arc. J Geophys Res 102:14991–15019Google Scholar
  18. Evans JP, Chester FM (1995) Fluid–rock interaction in faults of the San-Andreas system—inferences from San-Gabriel fault rock geochemistry and microstructures. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 100:13007–13020Google Scholar
  19. Faulkner DR, Lewis AC, Rutter EH (2003) On the internal structure and mechanics of large strike-slip fault zones: field observations of the Carboneras fault in southeastern Spain. Tectonophysics 367(3–4):235–251Google Scholar
  20. Francalanci L, Vougioukalakis G, Perini G, Manetti P (2005) A west–east traverse along the magmatism of the South Aegean volcanic arc in the light of volcanological, chemical and isotope data. The South Aegean active volcanic arc: present knowledge and future perspectives. Dev Volcanol 7:65–111Google Scholar
  21. Fytikas M, Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzuoli R, Peccerillo A, Villari L (1985) Tertiary to Quaternary evolution of volcanism in the Aegean region. The Geological Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Spec Publ Geol Soc 17:687–699Google Scholar
  22. Fytikas M, Giuliani O, Innocenti F, Kolios N, Manetti P, Mazzuoli R (1986) The Plio-Quaternary volcanism of Saronikos area (western part of the active Aegean volcanic arc). Ann Géol Pays Hellén 33:23–45Google Scholar
  23. Grigoriadis V, Tziavos I, Tsokas G, Stampolidis A (2016) Gravity data inversion for Moho depth modeling in the Hellenic area. Pure Appl Geophys 173(4):1223–1241Google Scholar
  24. Guillot S, Kéíko HH, De Sigoyer J, Nägler T, Auzende AL (2001) Evidence of hydration of the mantle wedge and its role in the exhumation of eclogites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 193:115–127Google Scholar
  25. Halpaap F, Rondenay S, Ottemöller L (2018) Seismicity, deformation and metamorphism in the Western Hellenic subduction zone-new constraints from tomography. J Geophys Res 123:3000–3026. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heinicke J, Fischer T, Gaupp R, Götze J, Koch U, Konietzky H, Stanek K-P (2009) Hydrothermal alteration as a trigger mechanism for earthquake swarms: the Vogtland/NW Bohemia region as a case study. Geophys J Int 178:1–13Google Scholar
  27. Humphreys E, Clayton RW (1988) Adaptation of back projection tomography to seismic travel time problems. J Geophys Res 93:1073–1085Google Scholar
  28. Jarrard RD (1986) Relations among subduction parameters. Rev Geophys 24(2):217–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jaxybulatov K, Koulakov I, Ibs-von Seht M, Klinge K, Reichert C, Dahren B, Troll VR (2011) Evidence for high fluid/melt content beneath Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) from local earthquake tomography. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 206(3–4):96–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson MC, Plank T (1999) Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 1(12). Google Scholar
  31. Kapetanidis V, Deschamps A, Papadimitriou P, Matrullo E, Karakonstantis A, Bozionelos G, Kaviris G, Serpetsidaki A, Lyon-Caen H, Voulgaris N, Bernard P, Sokos E, Makropoulos K (2015) The 2013 earthquake swarm in Helike, Greece: seismic activity at the root of old normal faults. Geophys J Int 202:2044–2073Google Scholar
  32. Karakonstantis A (2017) 3-D simulation of crust and upper mantle structure in the broader Hellenic area through seismic tomography. Dissertation, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensGoogle Scholar
  33. Karakonstantis A and Papadimitriou P (2010) Earthquake relocation in Greece using a unified and homogenized seismological catalogue, Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece, Proc. of the 12th International Congress, Patras, May 2010, XLIII, 4: 2043–2052Google Scholar
  34. Kasatkina E, Koulakov I, West M, Izbekov P (2014) Seismic structure changes beneath redoubt volcano during the 2009 eruption inferred from local earthquake tomography. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119(6):4938–4954. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kassaras Ι, Kapetanidis V, Karakonstantis A (2016) On the spatial distribution of seismicity and the 3D tectonic stress field in western Greece. Phys Chem Earth A/B/C 95:50–72, ISSN 1474-7065. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaviris G (2003) Study of seismic source properties of the Eastern Gulf of Corinth. Dissertation, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaviris G, Papadimitriou P, Kravvariti P, Kapetanidis V, Karakonstantis A, Voulgaris N, Makropoulos K (2015) A detailed seismic anisotropy study during the 2011-2012 unrest period in the Santorini volcanic complex. Phys Earth Planet Inter 238:51–88Google Scholar
  38. Kaviris G, Spingos I, Kapetanidis V, Papadimitriou P, Voulgaris N, Makropoulos K (2017) Upper crust seismic anisotropy study and temporal variations of shear-wave splitting parameters in the Western Gulf of Corinth (Greece) during 2013. Phys Earth Planet Inter 269:148–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaviris G, Spingos I, Millas C, Kapetanidis V, Fountoulakis I, Papadimitriou P, Voulgaris N, Drakatos G (2018a) Effects of the January 2018 seismic sequence on shear-wave splitting in the upper crust of Marathon (NE Attica, Greece). Phys Earth Planet Inter 285:45–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaviris G, Millas C, Spingos I, Kapetanidis V, Fountoulakis I, Papadimitriou P, Voulgaris N, Makropoulos K (2018b) Observations of shear-wave splitting parameters in the Western Gulf of Corinth focusing on the 2014 Mw=5.0 earthquake. Phys Earth Planet Inter 282:60–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaviris G, Fountoulakis I, Spingos I, Millas C, Papadimitriou P, Drakatos G (2018c) Mantle dynamics beneath Greece from SKS and PKS seismic anisotropy study. Acta Geophysica 66:1341–1357. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kissling E, Ellsworth WL, Eberhart-Phillips D, Kradolfer U (1994) Initial reference models in local earthquake tomography. J Geophys Res 99:19635–19646Google Scholar
  43. Klein FW (1989) HYPOINVERSE, a program for VAX computers to solve for earthquakelocations and magnitudes. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report: 89–314Google Scholar
  44. Koulakov I (2009) LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(1):194–214Google Scholar
  45. Koulakov I and Shapiro N (2015) Seismic tomography of volcanoes. Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering., SpringlerGoogle Scholar
  46. Koulakov I, Gordeev EI, Dobretsov NL, Vernikovsky VA, Senyukov S, Jakovlev A, Jaxybulatov K (2013) Rapid changes in magma storage beneath the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes inferred from time-dependent seismic tomography. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 263:75–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lagios E, Chailas S, Hipkin RG (1996) Newly compiled gravity and topographic data banks of Greece. Geophys J Int 126(1):287–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Le Pichon X, Angelier J (1979) The Hellenic arc and trench system: a key to the neotectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 60(1):1–42. Google Scholar
  49. Le Pichon X, Angelier J (1981) The Aegean Sea. Phil Trans R Soc A 300:357–372Google Scholar
  50. Lopes AEV, Assumpção M (2011) Genetic algorithm inversion of the average 1D crustal structure using local and regional earthquakes. Comput Geosci 37(9):1372-1380. 9pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Makris J (1977) Geophysical investigations οf the Hellenides. Hamb Geophys EinzelschrGoogle Scholar
  52. Makris J, Papoulia J, Drakatos G (2004) Tectonic deformation and microseismicity of the Saronikos Gulf, Central Greece. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94(3):920–929Google Scholar
  53. Makris J, Papoulia J, Yegorova T (2013) A 3-D density model of Greece constrained by gravity and seismic data. Geophys J Int 194(1):1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Makropoulos KC, Burton PW (1981) A catalogue of seismicity in Greece and the adjacent areas. Geophys J R Astron Soc 65:741–762Google Scholar
  55. Makropoulos KC, Burton PW (1984) Greek tectonics and seismicity. Tectonophysics 106:275–304Google Scholar
  56. Makropoulos K, Kaviris G, Kouskouna V (2012) An updated and extended earthquake catalogue for Greece and adjacent areas since 1900. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12(5):1425–1430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Matsuda J, Senoh K, Maruoka T, Sato H, Mitropoulos P (1999) K-Ar ages of the Aegean volcanic rocks and their implications for the arc-trench system. Geochem J 33:369–377Google Scholar
  58. McClusky S, Balassanian S, Barka A, Demir C, Ergintav S, Georgiev I, Gurkan O, Hamburger M, Hurst K, Kahle H, Kastens K, Kekelidze G, King R, Kotzev V, Lenk O, Mahmoud S, Mishin A, Nadariya M, Ouzounis A, Paradissis D, Peter Y, Prilepin M, Reilinger R, Sanli I, Seeger H, Tealeb A, Toksoz MN, Veis G (2000) GPS constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. J Geophys Res 105:5695–5719. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McKenzie DP (1978) Some remarks on the development of sedimentary basins. Earth Planet Sci Lett 40:25–32Google Scholar
  60. Mee CB, Fobes HA (1997) A rough and rocky place: the landscape and settlement history of the Methana peninsula, Greece. Liverpool University PressGoogle Scholar
  61. Mercier J, Carey E, Philip H, Sorel D (1976) La néotectonique plio-quaternaire de l’arc Égéen externe et de la mer Egée et ses relations avec la séismicite. Bull Sot Géol Fr S7-XVIII(2):355–372Google Scholar
  62. Miller SA, Nur A, Olgaard DL (1996) Earthquakes as a coupled shear stress high pore pressure dynamical system. Geophys Res Lett 23:197–200Google Scholar
  63. Miller SA, Collettini C, Chiaraluce L, Cocco M, Barchi M, Kaus BJP (2004) Aftershocks driven by a high-pressure CO2 source at depth. Nature 427:724–727Google Scholar
  64. Mitropoulos P, Tarney J (1992) Significance of mineral composition variations in the Aegean Island arc. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 51:283–303Google Scholar
  65. Mitropoulos P, Tarney J, Saunders AD, Marsh NG (1987) Petrogenesis οf cenozoic volcanic rocks from the Aegean volcanic arc. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 32:177–193Google Scholar
  66. Molnar P, Freedman D, Shih JSP (1979) Lengths of intermediate and deep seismic zones and temperatures in downgoing slabs of lithosphere. Geophys J Roy Astr S 56:41–54Google Scholar
  67. Mountrakis D (1986) The Pelagonian zone in Greece. A polyphase-deformed fragment of the Cimmerian continent and its role in the geotectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean. J Geol 94:335–347Google Scholar
  68. Müller S, Kahle H (1993) Crust–mantle evolution, structure and dynamics of the Alpine Mediterranean region, in contributions of space geodesy to geodynamics. Crustal Dyn 23:249–298Google Scholar
  69. Nakajima J, Matsuzawa T, Hasegawa A, Zhao D (2001) Three-dimensional structure of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs beneath the northeastern Japan arc: implications for arc magmatism and fluids. J Geophys Res 106:21843–21857Google Scholar
  70. Nakajima J, Hasegawa A, Horiuchi S, Yoshimoto K, Yoshida T, Umino N (2006) Crustal heterogeneity around the Nagamachi-Rifu fault, northeastern Japan, as inferred from travel-time tomography. Earth Planets Space 58:843–853Google Scholar
  71. Nichols G, Wyllie J, Stern C (1996) Experimental melting of pelagic sediment, constraints relevant to subduction, in Subduction: Top to Bottom. AGU Geophysical Monograph 96Google Scholar
  72. Nomikou P, Papanikolaou D, Alexandri M, Sakellariou D, Rousakis G (2013) Submarine volcanoes along the Aegean volcanic arc. Tectonophysics 597:123–146Google Scholar
  73. Ogawa Y, Honkura Y (2004) Mid-crustal electrical conductors and their correlations to seismicity and deformation at Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line, Central Japan. Earth Plants Space 56:1285–1291Google Scholar
  74. Papadimitriou P, Kaviris G, Makropoulos K (1999) Evidence of shear wave splitting in the eastern Corinthian Gulf (Greece). Phys Earth Planet Inter 114:3–13Google Scholar
  75. Papadimitriou P, Voulgaris N, Kassaras I, Kaviris G, Delibasis N, Makropoulos K (2002) The Mw=6.0, September 7, 1999 Athens earthquake. Nat Hazards 27:15–33Google Scholar
  76. Papadimitriou P, Kapetanidis V, Karakonstantis A, Kaviris G, Voulgaris N, Makropoulos K (2015) The Santorini volcanic complex: a detailed multi-parameter seismological approach with emphasis on the 2011–2012 unrest period. J Geodyn 85:32–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Papadimitriou P, Fountoulakis I, Spingos I, Karakonstantis A (2016) Recent seismic activity in Saronikos Gulf (Greece) and investigation of possible volcano-tectonic features. Proceedings of 35th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission (ESC2016)Google Scholar
  78. Papadimitriou P, Karakonstantis A, Kapetanidis V, Bozionelos G, Kaviris G, Voulgaris N (2018) Seismicity and tomographic imaging of the broader Nisyros region (Greece). “Nisyros volcano. The Kos - Yali - Nisyros volcanic field” e-book. Springer, pp 245–271. Google Scholar
  79. Papanastassiou D (2011) Earthquake detection-location capability of the Hellenic unified seismological network (HUSN) operating by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens. Hellenic J Geosc 45:209–216Google Scholar
  80. Papanikolaou D, Lykousis V, Chronis G, Pavlakis P (1988) A comparative study of neotectonic basins across the Hellenic arc: the Messiniakos, Argolikos, Saronikos and southern Evoikos Gulfs. Basin Res 1:167–176Google Scholar
  81. Papazachos B (1977) A lithospheric model to interpret focal properties of intermediate and shallow shocks in central Greece. Pure Appl Geophys 115:655–666Google Scholar
  82. Papazachos B (1990) Seismicity of the Aegean and surrounding area. Tectonophysics 178:287–308Google Scholar
  83. Papazachos B, Comninakis P (1971) Geophysical and tectonic features of the Aegean arc. J Geophys Res 76:8517–8533Google Scholar
  84. Patanè D, Chiarabba C, Cocina O, De Gori P, Moretti M, Boschi E (2002) Tomographic images and 3D earthquake locations of the seismic swarm preceding the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: evidence for a dyke intrusion. Geophys Res Lett 29(10):1497. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pearce FD, Rondenay S, Sachpazi M, Charalampakis M, Royden LH (2012) Seismic investigation of the transition from continental to oceanic subduction along the western Hellenic subduction zone. J Geophys Res 117:B07306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pe-Piper G & Piper DJW (2002) The igneous rocks of Greece. The anatomy of an Orogen Beitrage zur Regionalen Geologie der Erde (Series) xvi: 573 pp. Google Scholar
  87. Pe-Piper GP, Piper DJW (2005) The South Aegean active volcanic arc: relationships between magmatism and tectonics. Dev Volc 7:113–133Google Scholar
  88. Pe-Piper GP, Piper DJW (2013) The effect of changing regional tectonics on an arc volcano: Methana, Greece. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 260:146–163Google Scholar
  89. Sanders C, Ponko S, Nixon L, Schwartz E (1995) Seismological evidence for magmatic and hydrothermal structure in Long Valley caldera from local earthquake attenuation and velocity tomography. J Geophys Res 100:8311–8326Google Scholar
  90. Selverstone J, Morteani G, Staude JM (1991) Fluid channelling during ductile shearing: transformation of granodiorite into aluminous schist in the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps. J Metamorph Geol 9:419–431Google Scholar
  91. Shalev E, Kenedi CL, Malin P, Voight V, Miller V, Hidayat D, Sparks RSJ, Minshull T, Paulatto M, Brown L, Mattioli G (2010) Three-dimensional seismic velocity tomography of Montserrat from the SEA-CALIPSO offshore/onshore experiment. Geophys Res Lett 37(17). Google Scholar
  92. Sherburn S, Bannister S, Bibby H (2003) Seismic velocity structure of the central volcanic zone, New Zealand, from local earthquake tomography. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 122(1–2):69–88Google Scholar
  93. Spencer J, Nur A (1976) The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in westerly granite. J Geophys Res 81(5):899–904. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stern R (2002) Subduction zones. Rev Geophys 40(4):1012. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stoiber R, Carr MJ (1973) Quaternary volcanic and tectonic segmentation of Central America. B Volcanol 37:304–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takei Y (2002) Effect of pore geometry on Vp/Vs: from equilibrium geometry to crack. J Geophys Res 107(B2):2043Google Scholar
  97. Theodulidis N, Kalogeras I, Papazachos C, Karastathis V, Margaris B, Papaioannou C, Skarlatoudis A (2004) HEAD1.0: a unified accelerogram database. Seismol Res Lett 75:41–50Google Scholar
  98. Toksoz MN, Cheng CH, Timur A (1976) Velocities of seismic waves in porous rocks. Geophysics 41:621–645Google Scholar
  99. Toomey DR, Foulger GR (1989) Tomographic inversion of local earthquake data from the Hengill-Grensdalur central volcano complex, Iceland. J Geophys Res 94(B12):17497–17510Google Scholar
  100. Tzanis A, Lagios E (1993) Magnetotelluric exploration of Sousaki geothermal prospect, Corinth Prefecture, Greece: the first results. Proc. 2nd Congress of the Hell. Geophys. Un., 5–7 May 1993, Florina (Greece) 2–3, 229–243Google Scholar
  101. Tzanis A, Efstathiou A, Chailas S, Stamatakis M (2018) Evidence of recent plutonic magmatism beneath Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) and its relationship to regional tectonics. Geophys J Int 212(3):1600–1626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vanorio T, Virieux J, Capuano P, Russo G (2005) Three dimensional seismic tomography from P wave and S wave microearthquake travel times and rock physics characterization of the Campi Flegrei Caldera. J Geophys Res 110(B032):1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wessel P, Smith WHF (1995) New version of the generic mapping tools released. EOS Trans AGU 76:329Google Scholar
  104. Widiyantoro S, van der Hilst RD, Wenzel F (2004) Deformation of the Aegean slab in the mantle transition zone. Int J Tomogr Stat 4:1–14Google Scholar
  105. Xypolias P, Spanos D, Chatzaras V, Kokkalas S, Koukouvelas I (2010) Vorticity of flow in ductile thrust zones: examples from the Attico-Cycladic massif (internal Hellenides, Greece), in Continental Tectonics and Mountain Building: The Legacy of Peach and Horne. Geol Soc Spec Publ 335:687–714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zandomeneghi D, Almendros J, Ibàňez JM, Saccorotti G (2008) Seismic tomography of Central São Miguel, Azores. Phys Earth Planet Inter 167(1–2):8–18Google Scholar
  107. Zollo A, Judenherc S, Auger E, D’Auria L, Virieux J, Capuano P, Chiarabba C, de Franco R, Makris J, Michelini A, Musacchio G (2003) Evidence for the buried rim of Campi Flegrei caldera from 3-d active seismic imaging. Geophys Res Lett 30(19).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Geophysics – GeothermicsNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensZografouGreece

Personalised recommendations