Advertisement

Journal of Seismology

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1377–1393 | Cite as

Delineation of seismic zonation using fractal modeling in West Yazd province, Central Iran

  • Peyman Afzal
  • Ahmad Adib
  • Naser Ebadati
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

This study is an attempt to identify seismic zones utilizing number-size (N-S) and concentration-area (C-A) fractal models in the West Yazd province, Central Iran. The analysis was based on the earthquakes’ magnitude and Quaternary faults’ density. Fault density map was generated and classified by fractal modeling. The result indicates that the main fault densities correlate with Dehshir and Eqlid faults. Furthermore, the areas with relatively large earthquake magnitudes are located in the SE and NE parts of the region. The Quaternary faults’ density and earthquake magnitudes were weighted based on the results of the fractal modeling. Finally, weighted maps were combined and classified to show that Dehshir fault has the main role for seismicity in this area. Comparison between results derived via the fractal modeling and conventional seismic zonation map is satisfactory. Furthermore, fractal modeling approach distinguishes different seismic zones with higher accuracy in smaller areas. For validation of results, earthquakes since 2012 were collected and associated with seismic zones. These earthquakes which are correlated with major seismic zones are mainly located near the Dehshir and main Zagros faults.

Keywords

Seismic zones Number-size (N-S) fractal model Concentration-area(C-A) fractal model Fault density map Dehshir fault 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was extracted from a research project titled “Seismic Microzonation of the Yazd Provence base on the Fractal and Monte Carlo simulation” with the support of the Islamic Azad University, South Tehran branch. In addition, the authors would like to thank the editor and reviewers of this paper for their valuable comments and remarks.

Funding information

This study is financially supported by the Research Deputy of Azad University, South Tehran branch.

References

  1. Adib A (2016) Site classification using natural frequency base on seismic data and suggestions for application in Iranian building code. Case study Ardakan City. J Earth Space Phys 42(1):75–88Google Scholar
  2. Adib A, Afzal P, Heydarzadeh K (2015) Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using concentration-area fractal model. Nonlinear Process Geophys 22:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adib A, Afzal P, Mirzaei Ilani S, Aliyari F (2017) Determination of the relationship between major fault and zinc mineralization using fractal modeling in the Behabad fault zone, Central Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 134:308–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Afzal P, Fadakar Alghalandis Y, Khakzad A, Moarefvand P, Rashidnejad Omran N (2011) Delineation of mineralization zones in porphyry Cu deposits by fractal concentration–volume modeling. J Geochem Explor 108:220–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Afzal P, Fadakar Alghalandis Y, Moarefvand P, Rashidnejad Omran N, Asadi Haroni H (2012) Application of power-spectrum-volume fractal method for detecting hypogene, supergene enrichment, leached and barren zones in Kahang Cu porphyry deposit, Central Iran. J Geochem Explor 112:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Afzal P, Eskandarnejad Tehrani M, Ghaderi M, Hosseini MR (2016) Delineation of supergene enrichment, hypogene and oxidation zones utilizing staged factor analysis and fractal modeling in Takht-e-Gonbad porphyry deposit, SE Iran. J Geochem Explor 161:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aggarwal SK, Pastén D, Khan PK (2017) Multifractal analysis of 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquake sequence in Gujarat, Western India. Physica A 488:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aghanabati A (2004) Geology of Iran, Iranian Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration Publications 586 p. (in Persian)Google Scholar
  9. Agterberg FP (2012) Multi fractals and geostatistics. J Geochem Explor 122:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alavi M (1991) Tectonic map of the Middle East, 1:5000000, Iranian Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  11. Allen M, Jackson J, Walker R (2004) Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and longterm deformation rates. Tectonics 23Google Scholar
  12. Ambraseys N, Jackson A (1998) Faulting associated with historical and recent earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean region. Geophys J Int 133:390–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aviles CA, Scholz CH, Boatwright J (1987) Fractal analysis applied to characteristic segments of the San Andreas fault. J Geophys Res 92:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bayrak E, Yılmaz Ş, Bayrak Y (2017) Temporal and spatial variations of Gutenberg-Richter parameter and fractal dimension in Western Anatolia, Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 138:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berberian M (1976) Contribution to the seismotectonics of Iran (part II). Geol Surv Iran 39 518 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Berberian M, King GCP (1981) Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Can J Earth Sci 18:210–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berberian M, Yeats RS (1999) Patterns of historical earthquake rupture in the Iranian Plateau. Bull Seismol Soc Am 89:120–139Google Scholar
  18. Berberian M, Yeats R (2001) Contribution of archeolo gical data of earthquake history in the Iranian Plateau. J Struct Geol 23:563–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonilla MG, Mark RK, Lienkaemper JJ (1984) Statistical relations among earthquake magnitude, surface rupture length and surface fault displacement. Bull Seismol Soc Am 74(6):2379–2411Google Scholar
  20. Cheng Q (1999) Spatial and scaling modelling for geochemical anomaly separation, J Geochem Explor 65 (3), p. 175–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheng Q, Agterberg FP, Ballantyne SB (1994) The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods. J Geochem Explor 51:109–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dimri VP (2005) Fractal behavior of the earth system, Springer, 208 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Fattahi M, Nazari H, Bateman MD, Meyer B, Sébrier M, Talebian M, Le Dortz K, Foroutan M, Ahmadi Givi F, Ghorashi M (2010) Refining the OSL age of the last earthquake on the Dheshir fault, Central Iran. Quat Geochronol 5(2–3):286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gardner J, Knopoff L (1974) Is the sequence of earthquakes in Southern California, with aftershock removed, Poissonian? Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363–1446Google Scholar
  25. Ghomashi A, Haddadan M, Sabzehei M (1997) Dehshir 1:100000, Geological map, Geological Survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghomashi A, Kholghi Khasraghi MH, Mirtohidi I (2003) Abadeh 1:100000 Geological map, Geological Survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  27. Haghipour A, Aghanabati A (1985) Geological map of Iran, 1:2,500,000, Geological Survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  28. Hessami KH, Jamali F, Tabassi H (2003) Major active faults of Iran, International institute of earthquake engineering and seismologyGoogle Scholar
  29. Hirata T (1989) Fractal dimension of fault systems in Japan: fractal structure in rock fracture geometry at various scales. Pure Appl Geophys 131:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Houshmandzadeh A, Hamdi B, Soheili M, Ohanian AT, Aghanabati A, Sahandi R, Taraz H, Azarm F (1990) Eqlid 1:250000 Geological map, Geological Survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  31. IIEES (2015) International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, From http://www.iiees.ac.ir/en/eqcatalog/
  32. ISC (2017) International Seismological Centre, From http://www.isc.ac.uk/iscbulletin/
  33. Jackson J, Mckenzie D (1984) Active tectonics of the Alpine Himalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan. Geophys J R Astron Soc 77:185–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson J, Mckenzie D (1988) The relationship between plate motions and seismic moment tensors, and the rates of active deformation in the Mediterranian and Middle East. Geophys J 93:45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jackson J, Bouchon M, Fielding E, Funning G, Ghorashi M, Hatzfeld D, Nazari H, Parsons B, Priestley K, Talebian M, Tatar M, Walker R, Wright T (2006) Seismotectonic, rupture process and earthquake hazard aspects of the 2003 December 26 Bam, Iran, earthquake. Geophys J Int 166:1270–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karami K, Afzal P (2015) Application of multifractal modeling for separation of sulfidic mineralized zones based on induced polarization and resistivity data in the Ghare-Tappeh Cu deposit, NW Iran. Iran J Earth Sci 77:134–141Google Scholar
  37. Kargaran Bafghi F, Franz Neubauer F, Genser J, Faghih A, Kusky T (2012) Mesozoic to Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: from Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene exhumation. Tectonophysics 564–565:83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kijko A, Sellevoll MA (1989) Estimation of earthquake hazard parameters from incomplete data file, part I. Utilization of extreme and complete catalogs with different threshold magnitudes. Bull Seismol Soc Am 79(3):645–654Google Scholar
  39. Kijko A, Sellevoll MA (1992) Estimation of earthquake hazard parameters from incomplete data file part II. Incorporation of magnitude heterogeneity. Bull Seismol Soc Am 82(1):120–134Google Scholar
  40. Li C, Ma T, Shi J (2003) Application of a fractal method relating concentrations and distances for separation of geochemical anomalies from background. J Geochem Explor 77:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mandelbrot BB (1983) The fractal geometry of nature. Freeman, San Fransisco 468 pGoogle Scholar
  42. Meyer B, Le Dortz K (2007) Strike-slip kinematics in central and eastern Iran: estimating fault slip-rates averaged over the Holocene. Tectonics 26Google Scholar
  43. Meyer B, Mouthereau F, Lacombe O, Agard P (2006) Evidence of quaternary activity along the Deshir fault: implication for the tertiary tectonics of Central Iran. Geophys J Int 164:192–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mohajjel M, Rasoli A (2014) Structural evidence for superposition of transtension on transpression in the Zagros collision zone: main recent fault, Piranshahr area, NW Iran. J Struct Geol 62:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mohammadi H, Bayliss TJ, Nekouei Ghachkanlu E (2017) Seismogenesis and earthquake triggering during the 2010–2011 Rigan (Iran) earthquake sequence. J Afr Earth Sci 126:84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moinfar AA, Naderzadeh A, Nabavi MH (2012) New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries, 15 WCEE LISBOA 2012Google Scholar
  47. Mouthereau F, Lacombe O, Meyer B (2006) The Zagros Folded Belt (Fars, Iran): constraints from topography and critical wedge modelling. Geophys J Int 165:336–356.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02855.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muto J, Nakatani T, Nishikawa O, Nagahama H (2015) Fractal particle size distribution of pulverized fault rocks as a function of distance from the fault core. Gephys Res Lett 42:3811–3819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nadimi A, Konon A (2012) Strike-slip faulting in the central part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Zagros Orogen, Iran. J Struct Geol 40:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nampally S, Padhy S, Dimri VP (2018) Characterizing spatial heterogeneity based on the b-value and fractal analyses of the 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence. Tectonophysics 722:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nazari H, Fattahi M, Meyer B, Sébrier M, Talebian M, Foroutan M, Le Dortz K, Bateman MD and Ghorashi M (2009) First evidence for large earthquakes on the Deshir Fault, Central Iran Plateau, Terra Nova, 21, 417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nogol Sadat MA and Almasian M (1993) Tectonic map of Iran, Geological Survey of IranGoogle Scholar
  53. Nowroozi AA (1985) Empirical relations between magnitudes and fault parameters for earthquakes in Iran. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75:1327–1338Google Scholar
  54. Oveisi B, Lavé J, Van Der Beek P, Carcaillet J, Benedetti L, Braucher R, Aubourg CH (2008) Thick- and thin-skinned deformation rates in the central Zagros simple folded zone (Iran) indicated by displacement of geomorphic surfaces. Geophys J Int 176:627–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Power WL, Tullis TE, Brown SR, Boitnott GN, Scholz CH (1987) Roughnes of natural fauit surface. Geophys Res Lett 14(1):29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reiter L (1990) Earthquake hazard analysis. Colombia University Press, New York 254ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Sadeghi B, Moarefvand P, Afzal P, Yasrebi AB, Daneshvar Saein L (2012) Application of fractal models to outline mineralized zones in the Zaghia iron ore deposit, Central Iran. J Geochem Explor 122:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scholz C (1982) Scaling laws for large earthquakes: consequences for physical models. Bull Seismol Soc Am 72:1–14Google Scholar
  59. Shafai Moghadam H, Whitechurch H, Rahgoshay M, Monsef I (2009) Significance of Nain-Baft ophiolitic belt (Iran): short-lived, transtensional cretaceous back-arc oceanic basins over the Tethyan subduction zone. Compt Rendus Geosci 341(12):1016–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sim BL, Agterberg FP, Beaudry C (1999) Determining the cutoff between background and relative base metal contamination levels using multifractal methods. Comput Geosci 25:1023–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Slemmons DB (1982) Determination of design earthquake magnitudes for microzonation, Proc. of the Third International Earthquake Microzonation Conf., vol. 1. U.S. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., pp 119–130Google Scholar
  62. Sornette A, Davy P, Sornette D (1990) Growth of fractal fault patterns. Phys Rev Lett 65:22–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Talebian M, Jackson J (2004) A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagrosmountains of Iran. Geophys J Int 156:506–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tatar M, Hatzfeld D, Martinod J, Walpersdorf A, Ghafory-Ashtiyani M, Chery J (2002) The present-day deformation of the central Zagros from GPS measurements. Geophys Res Lett 29:331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tatar M, Hatzfeld D, Ghafory-Ashtiyani M (2004) Tectonics of the Central Zagros (Iran) deduced from microearthquake seismicity. Geophys J Int 156:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Turcotte DL (1986) A fractal approach to the relationship between ore grade and tonnage. Econ Geol 18:1525–1532Google Scholar
  67. Turcotte DL (1997) Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vernant PH, Nilforoushan F, Hatzfeld D, Abassi MR, Vigny C, Masson F, Nankali H, Martinod A, Ashtiani A, Bayer R, Tavakoli F, Chery J (2004) Present-day crustal deformation and plate kinematics in the Middle East constrained by GPS measurements in Iran and Northern Oman. Geophys J Int 157:381–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Walker RT (2006) A remote sensing study of active folding and faulting in southern Kerman Province, S.E. Iran. J Struct Geol 28:654–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walker R, Jackson J (2004) Active tectonics and late Cenozoic strain distribution in central and eastern Iran, Bullard Laboratories, Department of Earth Sciences,University of Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walpersdorf A, Hatzfeld D, Nankali H, Tavakoli F, Nilforoushan F, Tatar M, Vernant P, Chéry J, Masson F (2006) Difference in the GPS deformation pattern of North and Central Zagros (Iran). Geophys J Int 167:1077–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wells DL, Coppersmith KJ (1994) New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width and surface displacements. Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974–1002Google Scholar
  73. Zare M (1995) Site dependent attenuation of strong ground motions in Iran; Seismic Zonation, 5th International Conference. Proceeding, vol. 2, pp 1221–1227Google Scholar
  74. Zuo R, Cheng Q, Xia Q, Agterberg F (2009) Application of fractal models to distinguish between different mineral phases. Math Geosci 41:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining Engineering, South Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum Engineering, South Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Islamshar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations