Journal of Seismology

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 1467–1485 | Cite as

Statistical analysis of the 2003–2016 seismicity of Azerbaijan and surrounding areas

  • Luciano TelescaEmail author
  • Fakhraddin Kadirov
  • Gurban Yetirmishli
  • Rafig Safarov
  • Gulam Babayev
  • Saida Ismaylova


The aim of the present work is to furnish a detailed picture of the space-time-magnitude statistical properties of the instrumental seismic catalogue of Azerbaijan and surrounding regions from 2003 to 2016. Although Azerbaijan is one of the most seismically active areas in the world, an exhaustive description of the statistical properties of the time, space, and magnitude distribution of its seismicity is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this work is to fill this scientific gap.


Azerbaijan Seismicity Statistics Fractals Clustering Magnitude 



We acknowledge the CNR-ANAS 2016-2017 common project.

Supplementary material

10950_2017_9677_MOESM1_ESM.doc (198 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOC 198 kb).


  1. Agayeva S, Babayev G (2009) Analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms for greater and lesser Caucasus applying the method of World Stress Map, Nafta-Press. Baku 2:40–44Google Scholar
  2. Aki K (1965) Maximum likelihood estimate of b in the formula log(N)=a-bM and its confidence limits. Bull Earthq Res Inst Tokyo Univ 43:237–239Google Scholar
  3. Aliyev AA, Guliev IS, Rakhmanov RR (2009) Catalog of mud volcanoes eruptions of Azerbaijan (1810–2007). Nafta-Press, Baku, p 105Google Scholar
  4. Aliyev Ad A, Guliev IS, Dadashov FH, Rahmanov RR (2015) Atlas of the world mud volcanoes. Nafta-Press, Baku, p 322Google Scholar
  5. Alizadeh AA (Ed) (2008) Geological map of Azerbaijan Republic, Scale 1:500,000, with Explanatory Notes. Baki Kartoqrafiya FabrikiGoogle Scholar
  6. Alizadeh AA, Guliyev IS, Kadirov FA, Eppelbaum LV (2016) Geosciences of Azerbaijan. Volume I: geology. 2016. 340 p. Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27395-2.239
  7. Allen M, Jackson J, Walker R (2004) Late Ceno- zoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics 23. doi: 10.1029/2003TC001530
  8. Babayev G, Tibaldi A, Bonali FL, Kadirov F (2014) Evaluation of earthquake-induced strain in promoting mud eruptions: the case of Shamakhi–Gobustan–Absheron areas. Azerbaijan, Nat Hazards 72:789–808. doi: 10.1007/s11069-014-1035-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babayev G (2010) About some aspects of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Absheron peninsula. Republican Seismic Survey Center of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Catalogue of Seismoforecasting Research Carried Out in Azerbaijan Territory in 2009, “Тeknur”, Baku, 59–64 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Babayev G, Ismail-Zadeh A, Le Moüel J-L (2010) Scenario-based earthquake hazard and risk assessment for Baku (Azerbaijan). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:2697–2712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Babayev G, Telesca L (2014) Strong motion scenario of 25th November 2000 earthquake for Absheron peninsula (Azerbaijan). Nat Hazards 73:1647–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dongsheng L, Zhaobi Z, Binghong W (1994) Research into the multifractal of earthquake spatial distribution. Tectonophysics 233:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doxas I, Dennis S, William LO (2010) The dimensionality of discourse. Proc Nat Ac Sci 107:4866–4871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gasanov A (2003) Earthquakes of Azerbaijan for 1983–2002. Baku, Elm, p 185 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Goebel THW, Schorlemmer D, Becker TW, Dresen G, Sammis CG (2013) Acoustic emissions document stress changes over many seismic cycles in stick-slip experiments. Geophys Res Lett 40:2049–2054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grassberger P, Procaccia I (1983) Measuring the strangeness of strange attractors. Physica D 9:189–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kadirov FA, Guliyev IS, Feyzullayev AA, Safarov RT, Mammadov SK, Babayev GR, Rashidov TM (2014) GPS-based crustal deformations in Azerbaijan and their influence on seismicity and mud volcanism.Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth 50:814–823. doi: 10.1134/S1069351314060020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutenberg R, Richter CF (1944) Frequency of earthquakes in California. Bull Seism Soc Am 34:185–188Google Scholar
  19. Ishimoto M, Iida K (1939) Observations of earthquakes registered with the microseismograph constructed recently. Bull Earthq Res Inst 17:443–478Google Scholar
  20. Jackson J (1992) Partitioning of strike slip and convergent motion between Eurasia and Arabia in eastern Turkey and the Caucasus. J Geophys Res 97:12471–12479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kadirov FA (2000) Gravity field and models of deep structure of Azerbaijan. Nafta-Press, Baku, p 112Google Scholar
  22. Kadirov F, Floyd M, Alizadeh A, Guliev I, Reilinger RE, Kuleli S, King R, Toksoz MN (2012) Kinematics of the eastern Caucasus near Baku. Azerbaijan, Natural Hazards 63:997–1006. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0199-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kadirov FA, Floyd M, Reilinger R, Alizadeh A, Guliyev IS, Mammadov SG, Safarov RT. (2015) Active geodynamics of the Caucasus region: implications for earthquake hazards in Azerbaijan. Proceedings of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, The Sciences of Earth, 3, 3–17Google Scholar
  24. Kadirov FA, Gadirov AG, Babayev GR, Agayeva ST, Mammadov SK, Garagezova NR, Safarov RT (2013) Seismic zoning of the southern slope of greater Caucasus from the fractal parameters of the earthquakes, stress state and GPS velocities, Izvestiya, Physics of the solid earth, 49, 554–562 (original in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. Kadirov F, Mammadov S, Reilinger R, McClusky S (2008) Some new data on modern tectonic deformation and active faulting in Azerbaijan (according to Global Positioning System measurements) Proceedings Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Earth’s Sciences, 1, 82–88Google Scholar
  26. Kadirov FA, Safarov RT (2013) Deformation of the Earth’s crust in Azerbaijan and surroundig territories based on GPS measurements (in Russian), proceedings the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Sciences of Earth 1:47–55 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. Kagan YY, Jackson DD (1991) Long-term earthquake clustering. Geophys J Int 104:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamer Y, Ouillon G, Sornette D (2013) Barycentric fixed-mass method for multifractal analysis. Phys Rev E 88:022922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kondorskaya NV, Shebalin NV (Eds.), (1982) New catalog of strong earthquakes in the USSR from ancient times through 1977, World Data Center for Solid Earth Geophysics, Report SE-31, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 608Google Scholar
  30. Kondorskaya NV, Shebalin NV, Khromenetskaya EA (1977) Novyi katalog sil’nykh zemletryasenii v SSSR s drevnikh vremen do 1975 goda (new catalogue of strong earthquakes in USSR from historical time to 1975). Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  31. Lennartz S, Livina VN, Bunde A, Havlin S (2008) Long-term memory in earthquakes and the distribution of interoccurrence times. Europhys Lett 81:69001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lippiello E, de Arcangelis L, Godano C (2008) Influence of time and space correlations on earthquake magnitude. Phys Rev Lett 100:038501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.038501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKenzie DP (1972) Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophys J R Asron Soc 30:239–243Google Scholar
  34. Mellors RJ, Kilb D, Aliyev A, Gasanov A, Yetirmishli G (2007) Correlations between earthquakes and large mud volcano eruptions. J Geophys Res 112:B04304. doi: 10.1029/2006JB004489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mignan A (2012) Functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution and completeness magnitude. J Geophys Res 117. doi: 10.1029/2012JB009347
  36. Naylor M, Greenhough J, McCloskey J, Bell AF, Main IG (2009) Statistical evaluation of characteristic earthquakes in the frequency magnitude distributions of Sumatra and other subduction zone regions. Geophys Res Lett 36:L20303. doi: 10.1029/2009GL040460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nemčok M, Feyzullayev A, Kadirov A, Zeynalov G, Allen R, Christensen C, Welker B (2011) Neotectonics of the Caucasus and Kura valley, Azerbaijan. Global Engineers & Technologist Review 1:1–14Google Scholar
  38. Peng CK, Buldyrev SV, Havlin S, Simons M, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL (1994) Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides. Phys Rev E 49:1685–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Philip H, Cisternas A, Gvishiani A, Gorshkov A (1989) The Caucasus: an actual example of the initial stages of continental collision. Tectonophysics 161:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Philip H, Cisternas A, Gvishiani A, Gorshkov A (2003) The Caucasus: an actual example of the initial stages of continental collision. Tectonophysics 161:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reilinger R, McClusky S, Vernant P, Lawrence S, Ergintav S, Cakmak R, Ozener H, Kadirov F, Guliev I, Stepanyan R, Nadariya M, Hahubia G, Mahmoud S, Sakr K, ArRajehi A, Paradissis D, Al-Aydrus A, Prilepin M, Guseva T, Evren E, Dmitrotsa A, Filikov SV, Gomez F, Al-Ghazzi R, Karam G (2006) GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa–Arabia–Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. J Geophys Res B5. doi: 10.1029/2005JB004051
  42. Saatli ultradeep well (1999) Researches of a deep structure of the Kur intermountain depression on materials of drilling of the Saatli ultradeep well-SG-1. Editors: A.Alizadeh and V.Khain. Baku, “Nafta-Press”, 242pGoogle Scholar
  43. Saintot A, Brunet M-F, Yakovlev F, Sebrier M, Stephenson R, Ershov A, Chalot-Prat F, McCann T (2006) The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus. In: Gee DG, Stephenson RA (eds) European lithosphere dynamics, vol 32. Geological Society of London Memoir, pp 277–289Google Scholar
  44. Sarlis NV, Skordas ES, Varotsos PA (2009) Multiplicative cascades and seismicity in natural time. Phys Rev E 80:022102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scholz CH (2015) On the stress dependence of the earthquake b value. Geophys Res Lett 42:1399–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scholz CH (1968) Microfracturing and the inelastic deformation of rock in compression. J Geophys Res 73:1417–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schorlemmer D, Wiemer S, Wyss M (2005) Variations in earthquake-size distribution across different stress regimes. Nature 437:539–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sengor AMC, Gorur N, Saroglu F (1985) Strike slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study, in: Strike slip Faulting and Basin Formation. Soc Econ Paleont Min Spec Pub 37:227–264Google Scholar
  49. Shi Y, Bolt BA (1982) The standard error of the magnitude-frequency b-value. Bull Seismol Soc Am 72:1677–1687Google Scholar
  50. Shikhalibeyli E (1996) Some problematic aspects of geological structures and tectonics of Azerbaijan. Baku, “Elm”, 48–82. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Shinomoto S, Miura K, Koyama S (2005) A measure of local variation of inter-spike intervals. Biosystems 79:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith LA (1988) Intrinsic limits on dimension calculations. Phys Lett A 133:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spada M, Tormann T, Wiemer S, Enescu B (2013) Generic dependence of the frequency- size distribution of earthquakes on depth and its relation to the strength profile of the crust. Geophys Res Lett 40:709–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Telesca L, Cuomo V, Lapenna V, Macchiato M (2001) Identifying space-time clustering properties of the 1983-1997 Irpinia-Basilicata (southern Italy) seismicity. Tectonophysics 330:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Telesca L, Lovallo M (2009) Non-uniform scaling features in central Italy seismicity: a non-linear approach in investigating seismic patterns and detection of possible earthquake precursors. Geophys Res Lett 36:L01308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Telesca L, Lovallo M (2010) Long-range dependence in tree-ring width time series of Austrocedrus chilensis revealed by means of the detrended fluctuation analysis. Physica A 389:4096–4104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Telesca L, Lovallo M (2011) Analysis of time dynamics in wind records by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and Fisher-Shannon information plane. J Stat Mech P07001Google Scholar
  58. Telesca L, Lovallo M, Babayev G, Kadirov F (2013) Spectral and informational analysis of seismicity: an application to the 1996-2012 seismicity of northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of Greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag Region. Physica A 392:6064–6078. doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2013.07.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Telesca L, Lovallo M, Lopez C, Martì Molist J (2016) Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014. Tectonophysics 672-673:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Telesca L, Lovallo M, Mammadov S, Kadirov F, Babayev G (2015) Power spectrum analysis and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of Earth’s gravity time series. Physica A 428:426–434. doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Telesca L, Pierini JO, Scian B (2012) Investigating the temporal variation of the scaling behavior in rainfall data measured in central Argentina by means of the detrended fluctuation analysis. Physica A 391:1553–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Triep EG, Abers GA, Lerner-Lam AL, Mishatkin V, Zakharchenko N, Starovoit O (1995) Active thrust front of the Greater Caucasus: the April 29, 1991, Racha earthquake sequence and its tectonic implications. J Geophys Res 100. doi: 10.1029/94JB02597
  63. Tormann T, Enescu B, Woessner J, Wiemer S (2015) Randomness of megathrust earthquakes implied by rapid stress recovery after the Japan earthquake. Nat Geosci 8:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Utsu T (1999) Representation and analysis of the earthquake size distribution: a historical review and some new approaches. Pageoph 155:509–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Varotsos PA, Sarlis NV, Skordas ES (2012) Scale-specific order parameter fluctuations of seismicity before mainshocks: natural time and detrended fluctuation analysis. Europhys Lett 99:59001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Varotsos PA, Sarlis NV, Skordas ES (2014) Study of the temporal correlations in the magnitude time series before major earthquakes in Japan. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 119:9192–9206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vincent SJ, Allen MB, Ismail-Zadeh AD, Flecker R, Foland KA, Simmons MD (2005) Insights from the Talysh of Azerbaijan into the Paleogene evolution of the South Caspian region. Bull Geol Soc Am 117:1513–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wessel P, Smith WHF, Scharroo R, Luis JF, Wobbe F (2013) Generic mapping tools: improved version released. EOS Trans AGU 94:409–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wiemer S (2001) A software package to analyze seismicity: ZMAP. Seismol Res Lett. doi: 10.1785/gssrl.72.3.37
  70. Wiemer S, McNutt SR, Wyss M (1998) Temporal and three-dimensional spatial analysis of the frequency-magnitude distribution near Long Valley Caldera, California. Geophys J Int 134:409–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wiemer S, Wyss M (2000) Minimum magnitude of completeness in earthquake catalogs: examples from Alaska, the western United States, and Japan. Bull Seismol Soc Am 90:859–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wiemer S, Wyss M (2002) Mapping spatial variability of the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes. Adv Geophys 45:259–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Woessner J, Wiemer S (2005) Assessing the quality of earthquake catalogues: estimating the magnitude of completeness and its uncertainty. Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:684–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wyss M (1973) Towards a physical understanding of the earthquake frequency distribution. Geophys J R Astr Soc 31:341–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yakubov AA, Alizade AA, Zeinalov MM, (1971) Mud volcanoes of Azerbajan SSR, atlas. Elm, Baku (in Russian), p. 258Google Scholar
  76. Yetirmishli GJ, Mammadli TY, Kazimova SE, (2013) Features of seismicity of Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus. Journal of Georgian Geophysical Society, Issue (A), Physics of Solid Earth, v. 16a, pp.55–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano Telesca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fakhraddin Kadirov
    • 2
  • Gurban Yetirmishli
    • 3
  • Rafig Safarov
    • 2
  • Gulam Babayev
    • 2
  • Saida Ismaylova
    • 3
  1. 1.National Research CouncilInstitute of Methodologies for Environmental AnalysisTitoItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Geology and Geophysics, ANASBakuAzerbaijan
  3. 3.Republican Seismological Survey Center of ANASBakuAzerbaijan

Personalised recommendations