Journal of Seismology

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 1185–1200 | Cite as

Building damage concentrated in Longtoushan town during the 2014 Ms. 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China: examination of cause and implications based on ground motion and vulnerability analyses

  • Xin WangEmail author
  • Susumu Kurahashi
  • Hao Wu
  • Hongjun Si
  • Qiang Ma
  • Ji Dang
  • Dongwang Tao
  • Jiwei Feng
  • Kojiro Irikura


Though the 2014 Ludian Earthquake had only a moderate magnitude (Ms 6.5), high-level ground motions of almost 1g occurred at Longtoushan Town (seismic station 53LLT), which located near the intersection of a conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault. The building damages on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan was clearly different. In order to examine the generation of the large acceleration at 53LLT, the focal mechanisms and the rupture processes of the conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault were determined. We found that there were two continuous impulsive waves in the records of 53LLT that were generated from two different faults, the Baogunao fault and the Xiaohe fault, respectively. Site effects on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan Town and their relations to different building damages were examined. We found that the predominant period at the pluvial fan was about 0.25 s, close to the fundamental natural period of multi-story confined masonry buildings. Ground motions on the pluvial fan and the river terrace were simulated through convolving synthesized bedrock motions with the transfer functions, which were analyzed using the one-dimensional underground velocity structures identified from H/V spectral ratios of ambient noise. Building collapse ratios (CRs) are estimated based on the vulnerability function of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and are compared with the observed values. We found that the observed building CRs on the pluvial fan are much higher than the estimated values. High-level ground shaking that is far beyond the design level was a reason for serious building damage.


2014 Ludian earthquake Seismogenic structure Site effect Underground velocity structures Building collapse ratio Aseismic capacity of buildings 



China Strong Motion Network Center of the Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration is highly appreciated for providing the ground motion records of the main shock and the aftershocks of the 2014 Ludian Earthquake. We owe thanks to Prof. Jianwen Cui and his colleague, Dr. Guoliang Lin, from Earthquake Administration of Yunnan Province, China, for their help in the work of onsite investigation and ambient noise measurement. We also thank the “Science Foundation of Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration” (Grant No. 2014B08) for providing the fund support to the onsite investigation.


  1. Arai H, Tokimatsu K (2004) S-wave velocity profiling by inversion of microtremor H/V spectrum. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94(1):53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng J, Wu Z, Liu J, Jiang C, Xu X, Fang L, Zhao X, Feng W, Liu R, Liang J et al (2015) Preliminary report on the 3 August 2014, Mw 6:2=Ms 6:5 Ludian, Yunnan-Sichuan border, south-west China, earthquake. Seismol Res Lett 86(3):750–763. doi: 10.1785/0220140208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fang L, Wu J, Wang W, Lü Z, Wang C, Yang T, Zhong S (2014) Relocation of the aftershock sequence of the Ms 6.5 Ludian earthquake and its seismogenic structure. Seismol Geol 36(4):1173–1185 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. He X, Ni S, Liu J (2015) Rupture directivity of the August 3rd, 2014 Ludian earthquake (Yunnan, China). Sci. China Earth Sci. 58(5):795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hu J, Zhang Q, Jiang Z, Xie L, Zhou B (2015) Characteristics of strong ground motions in the 2014 Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China. J Seismol. doi: 10.1007/s10950-015-9532-x Google Scholar
  6. Irikura K. (1986) Prediction of strong acceleration motions using empirical Green’s function, Proc. 7th Japan Earthq. Eng. Symp., 1986, pp.151–156Google Scholar
  7. Kurahashi S, Irikura K (2010) Characterized source model for simulating strong ground motions during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:2450–2475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li X, Xu X, Ran Y, Cui J, Xie Y, Xu F (2015) Compound fault rupture in the 2014 Ms 6.5 Ludian, China, earthquake and significance to disaster mitigation. Seismol Res Lett 86(3):764–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li X, Zhang J, Xie Y, Miao Q (2014) Ludian Ms 6.5 earthquake surface damage and its relationship with structure. Seismol. Geol. 36(4):1280–1291 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  10. Lin XC, Zhang H, Chen HF, Chen H, Lin J (2015) Field investigation on severely damaged aseismic buildings in 2014 Ludian earthquake. Earth Eng & Eng Vib 14(1):169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu C, Zheng Y, Xiong X, Fu R, Shan B, Diao F (2014) Rupture process of Ms 6.5 Ludian earthquake constrained by regional broadband seismograms. Chin J Geophys 57:3028–3037. doi: 10.6038/cjg20140927 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Si H, Midorikawa S (1999) New attenuation relationships for peak ground acceleration and velocity considering effects of fault type and site condition. J Struct Constr Eng, AIJ 1999(523):63–70 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang X, Masaki K, Irikura K (2011) Building damage criteria from strong ground motion characteristics during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. J Earthq Eng 15:1117–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang X., K. Masaki, K. Irikura, and S. Kurahashi (2010) Building response in disastrous areas during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes; extraction of building response parameters using microtremor measurements, Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting 2010, Architecture Institute of Japan, 1023–1024 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Wang X., K. Masaki, K. Irikura, and S. Kurahashi (2012) Quantitative damage criteria of severely-damaged masonry buildings during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from Microtremor Records, 15th WCEE, Paper NO. 4343Google Scholar
  16. Wang W, Wu J, Fang L, Lai G (2014) Double difference location of the Ludian Ms 6.5 earthquake sequence in Yunnan Province in 2014. Chin J Geophys 57(9):3042–3051. doi: 10.6038/cjg20140929 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Wen X, Du F, Yi G, Long F, Fan J, Yang P, Xiong R, Liu X, Liu Q (2013) Earthquake potential of the Zhaotong and Lianfeng fault zones of the eastern Sichuan-Yunnan border region. ChinJ Geophys 56(10):3361–3372. doi: 10.6038/cjg20131012 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Xie Z, Zheng Y, Liu C, Xiong X, Li Y, Zheng X (2015) Source parameters of the 2014 Ms 6.5 Ludian earthquake sequence and their implications on the seismogenic structure. Seismol Res Lett 86(6). doi: 10.1785/0220150085
  19. Xu P, Wen R, Wang H, Ji K, Ren Y (2015a) Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014. Earthq Sci 28(1):17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xu X, Wen X, Zheng R, Ma W, Song F, Yu G (2003) Pattern of latest tectonic motion and its dynamics for active blocks in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China. Sci China Earth Sci 46:210–226. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7313.2003.z2.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Xu X, Xu C, Yu GH, Wu XY, Li X, Zhang JG (2015b) Primary surface ruptures of the Ludian Mw 6.2 earthquake, southeastern Tibetan plateau, China. Seismol Res Lett 86(6):1622–1635. doi: 10.1785/0220150038
  22. Xu L, Zhang X, Yang C, Li C (2014) Analysis of the Love waves for the source complexity of the Ludian Ms 6.5 earthquake. Chin J Geophys 57:3006–3017. doi: 10.6038/cjg20140925 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  23. Yoshida N, Kobayashi S, Suetomi I, Miura K (2002) Equivalent linear method considering frequency dependent characteristics of stiffness and damping. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 22:205–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang G, Lei J, Liang S, Sun C (2014a) Relocations and focal mechanism solutions of the 3 August 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Ms6.5 earthquake sequence. Chin J Geophys 59(9):3018–3027 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Zhang Y, Xu L, Chen Y, Liu R (2014b) Rupture process of the 3 August 2014 Ludian, Yunnan, Mw 6.1(Ms 6.5) earthquake. Chin J Geophys 57:3052–3059. doi: 10.6038/cjg20140930 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Research Institute of Disaster ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Aichi Institute of TechnologyToyotaJapan
  3. 3.Disaster Prevention Research Center, Aichi Institute of TechnologyToyotaJapan
  4. 4.Earthquake Research InstituteThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Institute of Engineering MechanicsChina Earthquake AdministrationHarbinChina
  6. 6.Saitama UniversitySaitama CityJapan

Personalised recommendations