Advertisement

Journal of Seismology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 151–161 | Cite as

A new algorithm for tight integration of real-time GPS and strong-motion records, demonstrated on simulated, experimental, and real seismic data

  • Rui Tu
  • Maorong Ge
  • Rongjiang Wang
  • Thomas R. Walter
Original Article

Abstract

The complementary advantages of GPS and seismic measurements are well recognized in seismotectonic monitoring studies. Therefore, integrated processing of the two data streams has been proposed recently in an attempt to obtain accurate and reliable information of surface displacements associated with earthquakes. A hitherto still critical issue in the integrated processing is real-time detection and precise estimation of the transient baseline error in the seismic records. Here, we report on a new approach by introducing the seismic acceleration corrected by baseline errors into the state equation system. The correction is performed and regularly updated in short epochs (with increments which may be as short as seconds), so that station position, velocity, and acceleration can be constrained very tightly and baseline error can be estimated as a random-walk process. With the adapted state equation system, our study highlights the use of a new approach developed for integrated processing of GPS and seismic data by means of sequential least-squares adjustment. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated and validated using simulated, experimental, and real datasets. The latter were collected at collocated GPS and seismic stations around the 4 April 2010, E1 Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw, 7.2). The results have shown that baseline errors of the strong-motion sensors are corrected precisely and high-precision seismic displacements are real-timely obtained by the new approach.

Keywords

High-rate GPS Strong-motion records Baseline error Tight integration Precise point positioning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The high rate GPS data were download from ftp://data-out.unavco.org/pub/highrate/rinex/2010/094/ and the accelerometer data are available from http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20100404_2240.html#Downloads. The authors thank their colleagues for technical support in the experiment and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments. Mr. Rui Tu is financially supported by the China Scholarship Council for his Ph.D. study in Germany.

References

  1. Bock Y, Melgar D, Crowell BW (2011) Real-time strong-motion broadband displacements from collocated GPS and accelerometers. Bull Seism Soc Am 101:2904–2925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boore DM (2001) Effect of baseline corrections on displacement and response spectra for several recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. Bull Seism Soc Am 91:1199–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Colosimo G, Crespi M, Mazzoni A (2011) Real-time GPS seismology with a stand-alone receiver: a preliminary feasibility demonstration. J Geophys Res 116, B11302. doi: 10.1029/2010JB007941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crowell BW, Bock Y, Squibb MB (2009) Demonstration of earthquake early warning using total displacement waveforms from real-time GPS networks. Seismol Res Lett 80(5):772–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dach R, Hugentobler U, Fridez P, Michael M (2007) Bernese GPS software version 5.0. Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, BernGoogle Scholar
  6. Emore GL, Haase JS, Choi K, Larson KM, Yamagiwa A (2007) Recovering seismic displacements through combined use of 1-Hz GPS and strong-motion accelerometers. Bull Seism Soc Am 97:357–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ge M, Gendt G, Rothacher M, Shi C, Liu J (2008) Resolution of GPS carrier-phase ambiguities in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with daily observations. J Geod 82(7):389–399. doi: 10.1007/s00190-007-0187-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geng J, Teferle FN, Dodson AH (2010) Kinematic precise point positioning at remote marine platforms. GPS Solutions 14(4):343–350. doi: 10.1007/s10291-009-0157-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geng J, Bock Y, Melgar D, Crowell BW, Haase S (2013) A new seismogeodetic approach applied to GPS and accelerometer observations of the 2011 Brawly seismic swarm: implications for earthquake early warning. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20144 Google Scholar
  10. Graizer V (2006) Tilts in strong ground motion. Bull Seism Soc Am 96:2090–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwan W, Moser M, Peng C (1985) Some observations on strong-motion earthquake measurement using a digital accelerograph. Bull Seism Soc Am 75:1225–1246Google Scholar
  12. Kouba J, Héroux P (2001) Precise point positioning using IGS orbit and clock products. GPS Solutions 5(2):12–28. doi: 10.1007/PL00012883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li X, Ge M, Zhang Y, Wang R, Klotz J, Wicket J (2013) High-rate coseismic displacements from tightly-integrated processing of raw GPS and accelerometer data. Geophys J Int 195:612–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Melgar D, Bock Y, Sanchez D, Crowell BW (2013) On robust and reliable automated baseline corrections for strong motion seismology. J Geophys Res. doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50135 Google Scholar
  15. Tu R, Wang R, Ge M, Walter TR, Ramatschi M, Milkereit C, Bindi D, Dahm T (2013) Cost effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activities by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer. Geophys Res Lett. doi: 10.1002/grl.50653 Google Scholar
  16. Walter TR (2011) Low cost volcano deformation monitoring: optical strain measurements and application to Mount St. Helens data. Geophys J Int 186(2):699–705. doi: 10.1111/j.1365´-246X.2011.05051.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang R, Schurr B, Milkereit C, Shao Z, Jin M (2011) An improved automatic scheme for empirical baseline correction of digital strong-motion records. Bull Seism Soc Am 101:2029–2044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang R, Parolai S, Ge M, Jin MP, Walter TR, Zschau J (2013) The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake: comparison of GPS and strong-motion data. Bull Seism Soc Am. doi: 10.1785/0120110264 Google Scholar
  19. Weber E, Convertito V, Iannaccone G, Zollo A, Bobbio A, Cantore L, Corciulo M, Crosta MD, Elia L, Martino C, Romeo A, Satriano C (2007) An advanced seismic network in the Southern Apennines (Italy) for seismicity investigations and experimentation with earthquake early warning. Seismol Res Lett 78(6):622–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xu P, Shi C, Fang R, Liu J, Niu X, Zhang Q, Yanagidani T (2012) High-rate precise point positioning (PPP) to measure seismic wave motions: an experimental comparison of GPS PPP with inertial measurements units. J Geod. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0606-z Google Scholar
  21. Yang Y, He H, Xu G (2001) Adaptively robust filtering for kinematic geodetic positioning. J Geodesy 75:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhu L (2003) Recovering permanent displacements from seismic records of the June 9, 1994 Bolivia deep earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 30:1740. doi: 10.1029/2003GL017302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zollo A, Iannaccone G, Lancieri M, Cantore L, Convertito V, Emolo A, Festa G, Gallovic F, Vassallo M, Martino C, Satriano C, Gasparini1 P (1997) Earthquake early warning system in southern Italy: Methodologies and performance evaluation. Geophys Res Lett 36, L00B07, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036689

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Tu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maorong Ge
    • 1
  • Rongjiang Wang
    • 1
  • Thomas R. Walter
    • 1
  1. 1.GFZ German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.University of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations