A new algorithm for tight integration of real-time GPS and strong-motion records, demonstrated on simulated, experimental, and real seismic data
- 548 Downloads
The complementary advantages of GPS and seismic measurements are well recognized in seismotectonic monitoring studies. Therefore, integrated processing of the two data streams has been proposed recently in an attempt to obtain accurate and reliable information of surface displacements associated with earthquakes. A hitherto still critical issue in the integrated processing is real-time detection and precise estimation of the transient baseline error in the seismic records. Here, we report on a new approach by introducing the seismic acceleration corrected by baseline errors into the state equation system. The correction is performed and regularly updated in short epochs (with increments which may be as short as seconds), so that station position, velocity, and acceleration can be constrained very tightly and baseline error can be estimated as a random-walk process. With the adapted state equation system, our study highlights the use of a new approach developed for integrated processing of GPS and seismic data by means of sequential least-squares adjustment. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated and validated using simulated, experimental, and real datasets. The latter were collected at collocated GPS and seismic stations around the 4 April 2010, E1 Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw, 7.2). The results have shown that baseline errors of the strong-motion sensors are corrected precisely and high-precision seismic displacements are real-timely obtained by the new approach.
KeywordsHigh-rate GPS Strong-motion records Baseline error Tight integration Precise point positioning
The high rate GPS data were download from ftp://data-out.unavco.org/pub/highrate/rinex/2010/094/ and the accelerometer data are available from http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20100404_2240.html#Downloads. The authors thank their colleagues for technical support in the experiment and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments. Mr. Rui Tu is financially supported by the China Scholarship Council for his Ph.D. study in Germany.
- Dach R, Hugentobler U, Fridez P, Michael M (2007) Bernese GPS software version 5.0. Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, BernGoogle Scholar
- Iwan W, Moser M, Peng C (1985) Some observations on strong-motion earthquake measurement using a digital accelerograph. Bull Seism Soc Am 75:1225–1246Google Scholar
- Tu R, Wang R, Ge M, Walter TR, Ramatschi M, Milkereit C, Bindi D, Dahm T (2013) Cost effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activities by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer. Geophys Res Lett. doi: 10.1002/grl.50653 Google Scholar
- Weber E, Convertito V, Iannaccone G, Zollo A, Bobbio A, Cantore L, Corciulo M, Crosta MD, Elia L, Martino C, Romeo A, Satriano C (2007) An advanced seismic network in the Southern Apennines (Italy) for seismicity investigations and experimentation with earthquake early warning. Seismol Res Lett 78(6):622–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zollo A, Iannaccone G, Lancieri M, Cantore L, Convertito V, Emolo A, Festa G, Gallovic F, Vassallo M, Martino C, Satriano C, Gasparini1 P (1997) Earthquake early warning system in southern Italy: Methodologies and performance evaluation. Geophys Res Lett 36, L00B07, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036689