Journal of Seismology

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 197–207 | Cite as

UK 1-D regional velocity models by analysis of variance of P-wave travel times from local earthquakes

  • David C. BoothEmail author
Original article


A method is presented for deriving 1-D velocity depth models from earthquake bulletin data. The models can be used as initial models for more advanced modelling techniques such as tomographic inversion. The method is useful when there is little or no refraction and long-range reflection survey data. The bulletin travel times are subjected to an analysis of variance, where they are separated into source, distance, and receiving station terms. The distance terms describe the variation of travel time with distance, and the associated trend lines allow 1-D velocity models for the crustal layers to be determined. The velocity models provide an average crustal model for the region derived from local data. This does not include superficial layers which are necessarily poorly determined. Earthquake bulletin P-wave data from propagation paths across three different regions of the UK are employed to illustrate the use of the technique.


P-waves Velocity models Statistical methods 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barton PJ (1992) LISPB revisited: a new look under the Caledonides of Northern Britain. Geophys J Int 110:371–391. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1992.tb00881.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bamford D, Nunn K, Prodehl C, Jacob B (1978) LISPB-IV. Crustal structure of northern Britain. Geophys J R Astron Soc 54:43–60Google Scholar
  3. Bott MHP, Long RE, Green ASP, Lewis AHJ, Sinha MC, Stevenson DL (1985) Crustal structure south of the Iapetus Suture beneath northern England. Nature 314:724–727. doi: 10.1038/314724a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brownlee KA (1965) Statistical theory and methodology in science and engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpenter EW, Marshall PD, Douglas A (1967) The amplitude–distance curve for short period teleseismic P-waves. Geophys J R Astron Soc 13:61–70Google Scholar
  6. Chadwick RA, Pharaoh TC (1998) The seismic reflection Moho beneath the United Kingdom and adjacent areas. Tectonophys 299:255–279. doi: 10.1016/S0040-1951(98)00193-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clegg B, England RW (2003) Velocity structure of the UK continental shelf from a compilation of wide-angle and refraction data. Geol Mag 140:453–467. doi: 10.1017/S0016756803007866 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fisher RA (1925) Statistical methods for research workers. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Hall J, Powell DW, Warner MR, El-Isa ZH, Adesanya O, Bluck BJ (1983) Seismological evidence for shallow crystalline basement in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. Nature 305:418–420. doi: 10.1038/305418a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Havskov J, Bungum H (1987) Source parameters for earthquakes in the North Sea. Nor Geol Tidsskr 67:51–58Google Scholar
  11. Galloway DD (ed.) (2008) Bulletin of British earthquakes 2007. British Geological Survey Technical Report OR/08/048Google Scholar
  12. Jacob AWB (1969) Crustal phase velocities observed at the Eskdalemuir seismic array. Geophys J R Astron Soc 18:189–197Google Scholar
  13. Kearey P, Brooks M (1984) An introduction to geophysical exploration. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Kelly A, England RW, Maguire PKH (2007) A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas. Geophys J Int 171:1172–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kempthorne O (1952) Design of experiments. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Kissling E (1988) Geotomography with local earthquake data. Rev Geophys 26:659–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kissling E, Ellsworth WL, Eberhart-Phillips D, Kradolfer U (1994) Initial reference models in local earthquake tomography. J Geophys Res 99:19635–19646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee W, Lahr J (1975) HYPO71 (revised). A computer program for determining hypocenter, magnitude and first motion pattern of local earthquakes. Open File Rep US Geol Surv 75Google Scholar
  19. Scheffé H (1959) The analysis of variance. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Thurber CH (1983) Earthquake locations and three-dimensional crustal structure in the Coyote Late area, central California. J Geophys Res 88:8226–8236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thurber CH (1987) Analysis methods of kinematic data from local earthquakes. Rev Geophys 24:793–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tomlinson JP, Denton P, Maguire PKH, Booth DC (2006) Analysis of the crustal structure of the British Isles using teleseismic receiver functions. Geophys J Int 167:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Whitcombe DN, Maguire PKH (1980) An analysis of velocity structure of the Precambrian rocks of Charnwood Forest. Geophys J R Astron Soc 63:405–416Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.British Geological SurveyEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations