Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 32, Issue 11, pp 3557–3562 | Cite as

Oxygen Vacancy-Induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Rutile TiO2

  • H. Liu
  • G. P. LiEmail author
  • Q. L. Lin
  • D. J. E
  • X. D. Gao
  • X. B. Wei
  • X. D. Pan
  • S. X. Zhang
  • J. J. Ding
  • W. Lan
Original Paper


As oxygen vacancies play an important role in ferromagnetism of rutile TiO2, a method of γ-ray irradiates rutile TiO2 single crystals was subtly proposed to study the effect of oxygen vacancies on magnetic properties. Remarkably, room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in γ-ray irradiated rutile TiO2 single crystals, and the saturation magnetization is the strongest when dose is 4 × 104 Gy which assigned to ESR results. Since the displacement threshold energy of Ti atom is much bigger than that of O atom, the defects produced by γ-irradiation are mainly oxygen vacancies. After irradiation, XPS, PL spectra indicate the presence of oxygen vacancies(VO), Ti3+, and VO-Ti3+ composite defects.


Room temperature ferromagnetism Oxygen vacancy γ irradiation Rutile TiO2 



A portion of this work was performed on the Steady High Magnetic Field Facilities, High Magnetic Field Laboratory, CAS. γ-irradiation work was supported by the School for Radiation and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Soochow University, China.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575074), the Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University (lzujbky-2018-kb06), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China(lzujbky-2017-it39, lzujbky-2018-it38), the DSTI Foundation of Gansu (2018ZX-07).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Liu
    • 1
  • G. P. Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Q. L. Lin
    • 1
  • D. J. E
    • 1
  • X. D. Gao
    • 1
  • X. B. Wei
    • 1
  • X. D. Pan
    • 1
  • S. X. Zhang
    • 1
  • J. J. Ding
    • 1
  • W. Lan
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Nuclear Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Physical Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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