Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 32, Issue 9, pp 2959–2972 | Cite as

Influence of Annealing on Microstructure, Electrochemical, and Magnetic Properties of Co-Doped SrTiO3 Nanocubes

  • P. Songwattanasin
  • A. Karaphun
  • S. Hunpratub
  • S. Maensiri
  • E. SwatsitangEmail author
  • V. Amornkitbamrung
Original Paper


Effect of annealing on microstructure, electrochemical, and magnetic properties of Co-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes obtained by the hydrothermal method was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of all as-prepared and annealed Co-doped SrTiO3 samples revealed a cubic perovskite structure with the second phases of SrCO3 and Co3O4in as-prepared and annealed SrTi0.90Co0.10O3 samples, respectively. Agglomerated nanocubes could be clearly observed in all as-prepared and annealed Co-doped samples by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) results suggested the presence of Co2+ cations in as-prepared Co-doped SrTiO3 samples, while both of Co2+ and Co3+ cations were found in annealed Co-doped SrTiO3 samples. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) results of as-prepared and annealed SrTi1-xCoxO3 (x = 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) electrodes revealed pseudocapacitor behavior of the Faradaic redox reaction type. The specific capacitance (Csc) was affected by the increase of Co content in all as-prepared and annealed Co-doped SrTiO3 samples with an excellent cycling stability after 200 cycle test of 97.24% and the highest value of 75.28 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 in an annealed SrTi0.925Co0.075O3 electrode. Magnetization measurements at room temperature using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) revealed diamagnetic behavior of as-prepared SrTiO3 sample, whereas paramagnetic behavior was observed in all as-prepared Co-doped SrTiO3 samples. After annealing, undoped sample exhibited paramagnetic behavior, whereas ferromagnetic behavior was observed in all Co-doped SrTiO3 samples with the increase of saturation magnetization (Ms) at 10 kOe from 0.58 to 1.63 emu/g and the coercive field (Hc) from 43.71 to 123.87 Oe, suggested to originate from the face-center exchange (FCE) mechanism.


Co-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes Hydrothermal method Annealing effect Microstructure Electrochemical and magnetic properties 



The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon ratchasima, Thailand was acknowledged for XAS measurements. was also grateful

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (PHD/0238/2552) and co-financially supported by Institute of Nanomaterials Research and Innovation for Energy (IN-RIE), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Songwattanasin
    • 1
  • A. Karaphun
    • 2
  • S. Hunpratub
    • 3
  • S. Maensiri
    • 4
  • E. Swatsitang
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • V. Amornkitbamrung
    • 5
  1. 1.Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUdon Thani Rajabhat UniversityUdon ThaniThailand
  4. 4.School of Physics, Institute of ScienceSuranaree University of TechnologyNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  5. 5.Institute of Nanomaterials Research and Innovation for Energy (IN-RIE)Khon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

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