Fabrication and Magnetic Characterization of CFO/NiO and CFO/NiS Heterostructures

  • Ahmed R. MahbubEmail author
  • Ariful Haque
  • Kartik Ghosh
Original Paper


Magnetic analysis of different magnetic bilayers and multilayers is an important step for designing next-generation multiferroic heterostructures. In this study, we have investigated the magnetic interaction at the interface in CFO/NiO hetero-structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates. The thin film heterostructure samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disruptive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for magnetic measurements. The XRD analysis on different samples shows the crystalline growth of the thin films. The SEM-EDS analysis provides information about structural and elemental compositions of the heterostructure films. A SQUID magnetometer was used to investigate the temperature and field-dependent magnetic properties. To better understand the magnetic properties of the thin film heterostructure samples, zero field cool (ZFC) and field cool (FC) magnetization data were analyzed. At low temperature, ferromagnetic hysteresis loop was observed. A shift in the M-H hysteresis curve was observed for the FC data from the ZFC data, which indicates the presence of exchange bias effect. In addition, we have examined the effect of antiferromagnetic NiS thin films on ferromagnetism of CFO. This study on the magnetic interaction between a ferromagnetic layer and an antiferromagnetic layer can advance the frontier for applications in spin valves, magnetic sensors, and magnetic random access memory.


NiO CFO NiS Heterostructure Magnetic measurements Ferromagnetism 



Ariful Haque and Ahmed R. Mahbub contributed equally to this paper as first authors. We would like to deeply thank the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base for providing us with the technical assistance during data acquisition.

Funding Information

We would like to acknowledge the National Science Foundation (NSF) grants (DMR-0723105 and DMR-0821159) for supporting this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed R. Mahbub
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ariful Haque
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kartik Ghosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Astronomy and Materials ScienceMissouri State UniversitySpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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