Structural, Magnetic, and Photoluminescence Properties of BiFeO3: Er-Doped Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

  • K. Sunil Kumar
  • M. Ramanadha
  • A. Sudharani
  • S. Ramu
  • R. P. Vijayalakshmi
Original Paper


A simple sol-gel technique is used to synthesize zero-dimensional pure and Er-doped BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles. The effect of Er dopant on morphology, structure, optical, magnetic, and photoluminescence properties of single-phase BFO was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that the structural phase transformation is noticed from rhombohedral to orthorhombic with substitution of Er to pure BFO. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), morphology of the synthesized samples were spherical in shape. Agglomeration and particle size reduced with substitution of Er, particle size is around ∼ 30 nm. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) spectra confirms the presence of selective elements in synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) confirms that all the bonds strongly correspond to BFO. The substitution of Er in BFO nanoparticles also demonstrates a strong reduction in optical band-gap energy compared with pure BFO. Magnetization studies were carried out by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and the saturation magnetization increases with increasing substitution of Er. A photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals that the substitution of Er suppressed the recombination of electron-hole pairs.


Pure and Er-doped BFO nanoparticles Sol-gel technique XRD VSM Photoluminescence 


Funding Information

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is acknowledged for supporting this work (Vide sanction No. 03(1281)/13/EMR-II, dated 09-04-2013.


  1. 1.
    Mardani, R.: Mater. Res. Express 4, 055012 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xu, Q., Cheng, S., Hao, X., Wang, Z., Ma, N., Du, P.: Appl. Phys. A 123, 289 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen, J., Dai, H., Li, T., Liu, D., Xue, R., Xiang, H., Chen, Z.: J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 28, 2751–2754 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arya, G., Kotnala, R.K., Negi, N.S.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97, 1475–1480 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, X., Ju, Z., Li, F., Huang, Y., Xie, Y., Fu, Z., Knize, R. J., Lu, Y.: J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 13366–13372 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Catalan, G., Scott, J.F.: Adv. Mater. 21, 2463–2485 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo, Y., Pu, Y., Cui, Y., Hui, C., Wan, J., Cui, C.: Mater. Lett. 196, 57–60 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramirez, F.E., Marinho, J.E., Leão, C.R., Souza, J.A.: J. Alloys Compd. 720, 47–53 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dhir, G., Uniyal, P., Verma, N.K.: Physica Status Solidi C 14, 1600253 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mandal, S.K., Rakshit, T., Ray, S.K., Mishra, S.K., Krishna, P.S., Chandra, A.: J. Phys. Cond. Matter 25, 055303 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park, T.J., Papaefthymiou, G.C., Viescas, A.J., Moodenbaugh, A.R., Wong, S.S.: Nanoletters 7, 766–772 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhushan, B., Basumallick, A., Bandopadhyay, S.K., Vasanthacharya, N.Y., Das, D.: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 065004 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han, Y.L., Liu, W.F., Xu, X.L., Guo, M.C., Zhang, X.N., Wu, P., Rao, G.H., Wang, S.Y.: J. Alloys Compd. 695, 2374–2380 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu, Z., Chen, D., Wang, S., Zhang, N., Qin, L., Huang, Y.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 220, 1–2 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaur, M., Yadav, K.L., Uniyal, P.: Adv. Mater. Lett. 6, 895–901 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, Z., Ma, Y., Zhou, Y., Hu, R., Mao, W., Zhang, J., Min, Y., Yang, J., Huang, W.: J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28, 11338–11345 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    He, P., Hou, Z.L., Wang, C.Y., Li, Z.J., Jing, J., Bi, S.: Ceram. Int. 43, 262–267 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Han, Y., Mao, W., Quan, C., Wang, X., Yang, J., Yang, T., Huang, W.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 188, 26–30 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaur, B., Singh, L., Reddy, V.A., Jeong, D.Y., Dabra, N., Hundal, J.S.: Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 11, 4120–4135 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Banerjee, M., Mukherjee, A., Banerjee, A., Das, D., Basu, S.: New J. Chem. 41, 10985–10991 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yao, Q., Xu, X., Peng, S., Zhu, Y., Wang, Z., Ma, Y., Wang, X., Mao, W.: J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28, 463–467 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu, X., An, X.: Solid State Commun. 149, 711–714 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Irfan, S., Rizwan, S., Shen, Y., Li, L., Butt, S., Nan, C.W.: Sci. Rep. 7, 42493 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Irfan, S., Shen, Y., Rizwan, S., Wang, H.C., Khan, S.B., Nan, C.W.: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100, 31–40 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chauhan, S., Kumar, M., Chhoker, S., Katyal, S.C., Singh, H., Jewariya, M., Yadav, K.L.: Solid State Commun. 152, 525–529 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brahmi, M., Aldulmani, S.A., Amami, M.: J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 30, 2541–2547 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumar, M., Arora, M., Chauhan, S., Joshi, S.: J. Alloys Compd. 692, 236–242 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang, T., Xu, T., Gao, S., Song, S.H.: Ceram. Int. 43, 4489–4495 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Soltani, T., Lee, B.K.: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 16, 86–95 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Masoudpanah, S.M., Mirkazemi, S.M., Bhaghediyeh, R., Jabbari, F., Bayat, F.: J. Bull. Mater. Sci. 40, 93–100 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, L., Ma, H., Chang, L., Ma, C., Yuan, G., Wang, J., Wu, T.: Small 13 (2017)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang, W., Zhu, X., Wang, L., Xu, X., Yao, Q., Mao, W.: J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 30, 3001–3005 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gao, F., Yuan, Y., Wang, K.F., Chen, X.Y., Chen, F., Liu, J.M., Ren, Z.F.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 102506 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Sunil Kumar
    • 1
  • M. Ramanadha
    • 1
  • A. Sudharani
    • 1
  • S. Ramu
    • 1
  • R. P. Vijayalakshmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsSri Venkateswara UniversityTirupatiIndia

Personalised recommendations