Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 31, Issue 8, pp 2287–2290 | Cite as

Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) Treatment of the Magneto-Conductivity of Bi2Te3 Topological Insulator

  • Rabia Sultana
  • Ganesh Gurjar
  • P. Neha
  • S. Patnaik
  • V. P. S. AwanaEmail author


We report the magneto-conductivity analysis at different temperatures under a magnetic field of up to 5 T of a well- characterized Bi2Te3 crystal. Details of crystal growth and various physical properties including high linear magneto-resistance are already reported by some of us. To elaborate upon the transport properties of Bi2Te3 crystal, the magneto-conductivity is fitted to the known Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) equation and it is found that the conduction mechanism is dominated by both surface-driven weak anti-localization (WAL) and the bulk weak localization (WL) states. The value of HLN equation coefficient (α) signifying the type of localization (WL, WAL or both WL and WAL) falls within the range of − 0.5 to − 1.5. In our case, the low-field (± 0.25 T) fitting of studied crystal exhibited a value of α close to − 0.86 for studied temperatures of up to 50 K, indicating both WAL and WL contributions. The phase coherence length (lφ) is found to decrease from 98.266 to 40.314 nm with increasing temperature. Summarily, the short letter reports the fact that bulk Bi2Te3 follows the HLN equation and quantitative analysis of the same facilitates to know the quality of studied crystal in terms of WAL to WL contributions and thus the surface to bulk conduction ratio.


Topological insulator Magneto-resistance Conduction mechanism 



The authors from the CSIR-NPL would like to thank their Director of NPL, India, for his keen interest in the present work. S. Patnaik thanks the DST-SERB project (EMR/2016/003998) for the low-temperature high-magnetic facility at the JNU, New Delhi, and Rabia Sultana and Ganesh Gurjar for the CSIR research fellowship. P. Neha thanks the UGC for the BSR fellowship. Rabia Sultana also thanks the AcSIR-NPL for the Ph.D. registration.


  1. 1.
    Kane, C.L., Mele, E.J.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 146802 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernevig, B.A., Zhang, S.-C.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 106802 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fu, L., Kane, C.L., Mele, E.J.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 106803 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hasan, M.Z., Kane, C.L.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moore, J.E.: Nature 464, 194 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qi, X.L., Zhang, S.C.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roushan, P., Seo, J., Parker, C.V., Hor, Y.S., Hsieh, D., Qian, D., Richardella, A., Hasan, M.Z., Cava, R.J., Yazdani, A.: Nature 460, 1106 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, Y.L., Chu, J.-H., Analytis, J.G., Liu, Z.K., Igarashi, K., Kuo, H.-H., Qi, X.L., Mo, S.K., Moore, R.G., Lu, D.H., Hashimoto, M., Sasagawa, T., Zhang, S.C., Fisher, I.R., Hussain, Z., Shen, Z.X.: Science 329, 659 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu, Q., Liu, C.X., Xu, C., Qi, X.-L., Zhang, S.-C.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 156603 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abanin, D.A., Pesin, D.A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 136802 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Qi, X.-L., Hughes, T.L., Zhang, S.-C.: Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang, Z.H., Yang, L., Zhao, X.T., Zhang, Z.D., Gao, X.P.A.: Nano Res. 8, 2963 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lu, H.-Z., Shi, J., Shen, S.-Q.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 076801 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garate, I., Glazman, L.: Phys. Rev. B 86, 035422 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lu, H.-Z., Shen, S.-Q.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 146601 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adroguer, P., Liu, W.E., Culcer, D., Hankiewicz, E.M.: Phys. Rev. B 92, 241402 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bao, L., He, L., Meyer, N., Kou, X., Zhang, P., Chen, Z.-G., Fedorov, A.V., Zou, J., Riedemann, T.M., Lograsso, T.A., Wang, K.L., Tuttle, G., Xiu, F.: Sci. Rep. 2, 726 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hikami, S., Larkin, A.I., Nagaoka, Y.: Prog. Theor. Phys. 63, 707 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sultana, R., Neha, P., Goyal, R., Patnaik, S., Awana, V.P.S.: J. Magn. Mag. Mater. 428, 213 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sultana, R., Gurjar, G., Patnaik, S., Awana, V.P.S.: Mat. Res. Exp. 5, 046107 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    He, H.T., Wang, G., Zhang, T., Sou, I.K., Wong, G.K., Wang, J.N.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 166805 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ning, W., Du, H., Kong, F., Yang, J., Han, Y., Tian, M., Zhang, Y.: Sci. Rep. 3, 1564 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cha, J.J., Kong, D., Hong, S.-S., Analytis, J.G., Lai, K., Cui, Y.: Nano Lett. 12, 1107 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamdou, B., Gooth, J., Dorn, A., Pippel, E., Nielsch, K.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 223110 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Akiyama, R., Fujisawa, K., Yamaguchi, T., Ishikawa, R., Kuroda, S.: Nano Res. 9, 490 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lu, H.Z., Shen, S.Q.: Phys. Rev. B 84, 125138 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bao, L., Wang, W., Meyer, N., Liu, Y., Zhang, C., Wang, K., Ai, P., Xiu, F.: Sci. Rep. 3, 2391 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu, M., Zhang, J., Chang, C.Z., Zhang, Z., Feng, X., Li, K., He, K., Wang, L.L., Chen, X., Dai, X., Fang, Z., Xue, Q.-K., Ma, X., Wang, Y.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 036805 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabia Sultana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ganesh Gurjar
    • 3
  • P. Neha
    • 3
  • S. Patnaik
    • 3
  • V. P. S. Awana
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.National Physical Laboratory (CSIR)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), NPLNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Physical SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations