Josephson Effect in the Micron and Submicron YBCO Constrictions Fabricated Using the Femtosecond Laser Technique
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A femtosecond laser was used successfully to fabricate planar micron and submicron-sized constrictiontype Josephson junctions on YBa2Cu3O7−x thin films. A simple program using G-code (control systems) programming language was written to control the movement of the sample stage during the etching process. The constriction’s geometry was investigated using both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical transport measurements were performed at different temperatures. Shapiro steps were observed and analyzed. The micron-sized constriction shows a linear relationship for the measured critical current against the temperature which is consistent with the behavior of an S–s’–Stype Josephson junction where “S” stands for a bulk superconductive material that is untouched by the laser and “s”’ is superconducting material whose critical temperature is lower than the value of “S” In the case of the narrower submicronsized constriction, the measured critical current dependence with temperature shows an exponential decay, which is consistent with the behavior of the long S–N–Stype Josephson junction where “N” stands for a normal material. A model is proposed to describe the observed behavior by considering the effect of sample heating during the constriction’s fabrication.
KeywordsFemtosecond laser Josephson junction YBa2Cu3O7−x thin films Micron constriction Submicron constriction
I would like to acknowledge the contribution to this work of Ms. Jeina Lazar from CSIRO, Australia. She assisted with the process of making Au gold contacts and wire bonding each sample in order to perform the DC I–V measurements.
Financial support was obtained from the UNISA superconductivity technology research chair.
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