Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 187–194 | Cite as

Effect of Carbon Shell on the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

Original Paper


Carbon-encapsulated iron oxides (Fe3O4/C) with a core/shell structure have been successfully synthesized by using a simple two-step hydrothermal method at 180 C. Fe3O4 core nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation under two conditions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM images and FTIR results prove that carbon coated iron oxide is formed and the estimated size for most of them is below 11 nm, which was consistent with the XRD result. The Williamson–Hall (W–H) method has been used to calculate crystallite sizes and lattice strain based on the peak broadening of the Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/C nanoparticles. The results of VSM imply that the Fe3O4 core and core–shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/C are 49 emu/gr and 40 emu/gr, respectively. The magnetic behaviors reveal that the amorphous carbon shell can decrease the saturation magnetization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles due to core–shell interface effects and shielding.


Fe3O4/C Core/shell Strain Magnetization Superparamagnetic 



The authors thank the University of Guilan for their financial support. The authors also thank Professor Ali Akbar for his valuable advice and Miss Heidarian for the time shared in our project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanostructure Lab, Physics DepartmentUniversity of GuilanRashtIran

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