Advertisement

The Interplay Between Cognitive Intelligence, Ability Emotional Intelligence, and Religiosity

  • Paweł ŁowickiEmail author
  • Marcin Zajenkowski
  • Dimitri van der Linden
Original Paper

Abstract

The negative association between cognitive intelligence (CI) and religiosity has been widely studied and is now well documented. In contrast, the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in this context has been poorly investigated thus far. Some available data indicate that EI, unlike CI, correlates positively with religiosity. To date, however, no study has explored the relationship between religiosity and both intelligences simultaneously. In current studies (Ns = 301 and 200), we examined the interplay between all three constructs. The results showed that CI was positively correlated with ability EI and negatively with some measures of religiosity. EI, on the other hand, revealed no direct, significant relationship with religiosity. However, when combined into a single regression model with CI, EI became a significant positive predictor of religiosity. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the link between EI and religiosity was mediated by empathy. Interestingly, we also found a reciprocal suppression between CI and EI, since both predictors increased their influence on religiosity when analyzed together. Although the suppression was present in both studies, it was observed for different religiosity measures in each case, indicating that this effect is probably dependent on various factors, such as sample structure or type of religiosity.

Keywords

Religiosity Belief Cognitive intelligence Emotional intelligence Empathy 

Notes

Funding

Funding was provided by The National Science Center in Poland (2016/23/B/HS6/00312).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest for this paper.

Supplementary material

10943_2019_953_MOESM1_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 40 kb)

References

  1. Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (2004). A revised religious fundamentalism scale: The short and sweet of it. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion,14(1), 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, E. J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and emotional information processing. Personality and Individual Differences,39, 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbey, A. K., Colom, R., & Grafman, J. (2012). Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience,9, 265–272.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences,36(6), 1387–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley, C. (2009). The interconnection between religious fundamentalism, spirituality, and the four dimensions of empathy. Review of Religious Research,51, 201–219.Google Scholar
  6. Bugg, J. M., Zook, N. A., DeLosh, E. L., Davalos, D. B., & Davis, H. P. (2006). Age differences in fluid intelligence: Contributions of general slowing and frontal decline. Brain and Cognition,62(1), 9–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Butt, F. M. (2014). Emotional intelligence, religious orientation, and mental health among university students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research,29(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  8. Cattell, R. B. (1973). Measuring intelligence with the culture fair tests. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.Google Scholar
  9. Colom, R., & Garcı́a-López, O. (2002). Sex differences in fluid intelligence among high school graduates. Personality and Individual Differences,32(3), 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colom, R., Juan-Espinosa, M., Abad, F., & Garcı́a, L. F. (2000). Negligible sex differences in general intelligence. Intelligence,28(1), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conger, A. J. (1974). A revised definition for suppressor variables: A guide to their identification and interpretation. Educational and Psychological Measurement,34(1), 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,44(1), 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doane, M. J., Elliott, M., & Dyrenforth, P. S. (2014). Extrinsic religious orientation and well-being: Is their negative association real or spurious? Review of Religious Research,56(1), 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dutton, E., & Van der Linden, D. (2017). Why is intelligence negatively associated with religiousness? Evolutionary Psychological Science,3(4), 392–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernández-Berrocal, P., Cabello, R., Castillo, R., & Extremera, N. (2012). Gender differences in emotional intelligence: The mediating effect of age. Psicología Conductual,20(1), 77–89.Google Scholar
  16. Gervais, W. M. (2013). Perceiving minds and gods: How mind perception enables, constrains, and is triggered by belief in gods. Perspectives on Psychological Science,8(4), 380–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gervais, W. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2012). Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief. Science,336(6080), 493–496.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gignac, G. E. (2015). Raven’s is not a pure measure of general intelligence: Implications for g factor theory and the brief measurement of g. Intelligence,52, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hardy, S. A., Walker, L. J., Rackham, D. D., & Olsen, J. A. (2012). Religiosity and adolescent empathy and aggression: The mediating role of moral identity. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality,4(3), 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, E. D., Cohen, A. B., Terrell, H. K., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2010). The role of social cognition in the religious fundamentalism-prejudice relationship. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,49(4), 724–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huber, S. (2003). Zentralität und Inhalt. Ein neues multidimensionales Messmodell der Religiosität [Centrality and its content. The new multidimensional measurement model of religiosity]. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.Google Scholar
  22. Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions,3(3), 710–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ioannidou, F., & Konstantikaki, V. (2008). Empathy and emotional intelligence: What is it really about? International Journal of Caring Sciences,1(3), 118–123.Google Scholar
  24. Jack, A. I., Friedman, J. P., Boyatzis, R. E., & Taylor, S. N. (2016). Why do you believe in God? Relationships between religious belief, analytic thinking, mentalizing and moral concern. PLoS ONE,11(3), e0149989.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanazawa, S. (2012). The intelligence paradox: Why the intelligent choice isn’t always the smart one. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, G. J., Ritchie, S. J., & Bates, T. C. (2011). The relationship between intelligence and multiple domains of religious belief: Evidence from a large adult US sample. Intelligence,39(6), 468–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu, C. C. (2010). The relationship between personal religious orientation and emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal,38(4), 461–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Łowicki, P., Witowska, J., Zajenkowski, M., & Stolarski, M. (2018). Time to believe: Disentangling the complex associations between time perspective and religiosity. Personality and Individual Differences,134, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Łowicki, P., & Zajenkowski, M. (2017a). No empathy for people nor for God: The relationship between the Dark Triad, religiosity and empathy. Personality and Individual Differences,115, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Łowicki, P., & Zajenkowski, M. (2017b). Divine emotions: On the link between emotional intelligence and religious belief. Journal of Religion and Health,56(6), 1998–2009.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Łowicki, P., & Zajenkowski, M. (2019). Empathy and exposure to credible religious acts during childhood independently predict religiosity. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2019.1672486.
  32. Matczak, A., & Martowska, K. (2013). CFT 3 Neutralny Kulturowo Test Inteligencji—Wersja 3 Raymonda B. Cattella i Alberty K.S. Cattell [CFT 3. Culture Fair Intelligence Test—Version 3 Raymond B.Cattell, Alberta K.S. Cattell]. Warsaw: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.Google Scholar
  33. Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment,54(3–4), 772–781.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Mayer, J. D., & Geher, G. (1996). Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion. Intelligence,22(2), 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist,63(6), 503–517.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin,135(1), 69–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, A. S., & Hoffmann, J. P. (1995). Risk and religion: An explanation of gender differences in religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,34, 63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Norenzayan, A., Gervais, W. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2012). Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God. PLoS ONE,7(5), e36880.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Paek, E. (2006). Religiosity and perceived emotional intelligence among Christians. Personality and Individual Differences,41(3), 479–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parker, J. D., Saklofske, D. H., Wood, L. M., Eastabrook, J. M., & Taylor, R. N. (2005). Stability and change in emotional intelligence: Exploring the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Individual Differences,26(2), 100–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paulhus, D. L., Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Tracy, J. L. (2004). Two replicable suppressor situations in personality research. Multivariate Behavioral Research,39(2), 303–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Seli, P., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2012). Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief. Cognition,123, 335–346.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences,29, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pizarro, D., & Salovey, P. (2002). Religious systems as “Emotionally Intelligent” organizations. Psychological Inquiry,13(3), 220–222.Google Scholar
  46. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality,9, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saroglou, V. (2012). Adolescents’ social development and the role of religion: Coherence at the detriment of openness. In G. Trommsdorff & X. Chen (Eds.), Values, religion, and culture in adolescent development (pp. 391–423). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin,124(2), 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shenhav, A., Rand, D. G., & Greene, J. D. (2012). Divine intuition: Cognitive style influences belief in God. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,141(3), 423–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sherkat, D. E. (2010). Religion and verbal ability. Social Science Research,39(1), 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sherkat, D. E. (2011). Religion and scientific literacy in the United States. Social Science Quarterly,92(5), 1134–1150.Google Scholar
  52. Śmieja, M., Orzechowski, J., & Stolarski, M. S. (2014). TIE: An ability test of emotional intelligence. PLoS ONE,9(7), e103484.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stolarski, M., Bitner, J., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards. Time & Society,20(3), 346–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vishkin, A., Bigman, Y., & Tamir, M. (2014). Religion, emotion regulation, and well-being. In C. Kim-Prieto (Ed.), Cross-cultural advancements in positive psychology: Religion and spirituality across cultures (Vol. 9, pp. 247–269). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Vonk, J., & Pitzen, J. (2017). Believing in other minds: Accurate mentalizing does not predict religiosity. Personality and Individual Differences,115, 70–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Webser, G., & Duffy, R. D. (2016). Losing faith in the intelligence–religiosity link: New evidence for a decline effect, spatial dependence, and mediation by education and life quality. Intelligence,55, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weiß, E. E., & Süß, S. (2017). Protective faith? The role of religiosity in the stressor-strain relationship in helping professions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,30, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Willard, A. K., & Norenzayan, A. (2013). Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life’s purpose. Cognition,129(2), 379–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zajenkowski, M., Stolarski, M., Maciantowicz, O., Malesza, M., & Witowska, J. (2016). Time to be smart: Uncovering a complex interplay between intelligence and time perspectives. Intelligence,58, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zarzycka, B. (2008). Tradition or charisma—Religiosity in Poland. In Religion monitor 2008. EUROPE overview of religious attitudes and practices (pp. 26–29). Gütersloh, Germany: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  61. Zarzycka, B. (2011). Polska adaptacja Skali Centralności Religijności S. Hubera [Polish adaptation of S. Huber’s Centrality of Religiosity Scale]. In M. Jarosz (Ed.), Psychologiczny Pomiar Religijności (pp. 231–261). Lublin: TN KUL.Google Scholar
  62. Zimmer, Z., Jagger, C., Chiu, C. T., Ofstedal, M. B., Rojo, F., & Saito, Y. (2016). Spirituality, religiosity, aging and health in global perspective: A review. SSM: Population Health,2, 373–381.Google Scholar
  63. Zuckerman, M., Silberman, J., & Hall, J. A. (2013). The relation between intelligence and religiosity: A meta-analysis and some proposed explanations. Personality and Social Psychology Review,17(4), 325–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Education, and Child StudiesErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations