Rural Residents’ Depressive Symptoms and Help-Seeking Preferences: Opportunities for Church-Based Intervention Development
- 25 Downloads
This study examines rural residents’ depressive symptoms, helps seeking preferences and perceptions of a church-based group depression intervention, informing feasibility of adapting evidence-based treatment for delivery in rural churches. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 100 members of 2 churches in a rural Midwestern community; 63 congregants responded. Depression was assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Descriptive analyses were performed, and 12.9% of respondents screened positive for depression. Another 25% reported mild symptomatology. Respondents preferred informal help seeking, although reported more openness to formal providers to address others’ depression. Results suggest receptivity to church-based treatment. Almost two-third of respondents reported they would consider attending a church-based group depression intervention, 80% would recommend it to a friend in need, and 60% indicated it would benefit their community. Delivering evidence-based depression treatment within church settings may provide a viable option for increasing access to care in this rural community.
KeywordsRural mental health Depression Help-seeking preferences Church-based intervention Access to mental health care
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Braun, B., & Maghri, J. R. (2004). Rural families speak: Faith, resiliency, and life satisfaction among low-income mothers. Michigan Family Review, 8, 19–34.Google Scholar
- Buckwalter, K. C. (1991). The chronically mentally ill elderly in rural environments. In E. Light & E. Lebowitz (Eds.), The elderly with chronic mental illness (pp. 216–231). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
- Chandler, A. A., & Campbell, C. D. (2002). Barricades to benefits: Religion as a rural woman’s resource. Newberg, OR: Graduate School of Clinical Psychology, George Fox University.Google Scholar
- Eberhardt, M. S., Ingram, D. D., & Makuc, D. M. (2001). Urban and rural health chartbook: Health, United States, 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- Fischer, C. (1982). To dwell among friends: Personal networks in town and city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Gamm, L. G., Stone, S., & Pittman, S. (2003). Mental health and mental disorders—A rural challenge. In Rural healthy people 2010: A companion document to health people 2010, Vol. 1. College Station, TX: The Texas A & M University System Health Science Center, School of Rural Public Health, Southwest Rural Health Research Center.Google Scholar
- Hartley, D., Bird, D., & Dempsey, P. (1999). Mental health and substance abuse. In T. Ricketts (Ed.), Rural health in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Health Resources and Services Administration. (2019). Designated health professional shortage areas. Bureau of Health Workforce. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://ersrs.hrsa.gov/ReportServer?/HGDW_Reports/BCD_HPSA/BCD_HPSA_SCR50_Smry_HTML&rc:Toolbar=false.
- Murray, C., & Lopez, A. D. (Eds.). (1996). The global burden of disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services. (2014). Rural implications of the affordable care act outreach, education, and enrolment (Policy brief). Retrieved from https://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/rural/publications/ruralimplications.pdf.
- Newkirk, V. R. & Damico, A. (2014). The affordable care act and insurance coverage in rural areas (Issue Brief). Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation Retrieved from https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/8597-the-affordable-care-act-and-insurance- coverage-in-rural-areas1.pdf.
- Probst, J. E., Laditka, S. B., Moore, C. G., Harun, N., Powell, M. P., & Baxley, E. G. (2006). Rural-urban differences in depression prevalence: Implications for family medicine. Family Medicine, 38, 653–660.Google Scholar
- Proctor, B. D., Semega, J. L., & Kollar, M. A. (2016). Income and poverty in the United States: 2015 (Current population reports). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Sawyer, D., Gale, J., & Lambert, D. (2006). Rural and frontier mental and behavioral health care: Barriers, effective policy strategies, best practices. Waite Park, MN: National Association for Rural Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Smalley, K. B., Yancey, C. T., Warren, J. C., Naufel, K., Ryan, R., & Pugh, J. L. (2010). Rural mental health and psychological treatment: A review for practitioners. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 479–489.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. (2017). Geography of poverty. Retrieved from https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/rural-econo my-population/rural-poverty-well-being/geog raphy-of-poverty.aspx.