Religious and Spiritual Aspects of Disaster Experience Among Survivors of the 9/11 Attacks on New York City’s World Trade Center
- 90 Downloads
This study examined religious and spiritual aspects of disaster experience among 379 survivors of the 9/11 attacks on New York City’s World Trade Center. Interviews conducted 35 months after the disaster provided structured diagnostic assessments of psychiatric disorders and specific detail of demographic characteristics, experience of the disaster, and variables related to religion and spirituality. The study participants overwhelmingly identified with a specific religion. The disaster appeared to have only modest effects on strength and importance of religion/spirituality, and changes were predominantly positive. Specific religions and faith groups differed in their disaster experience in important ways.
KeywordsReligion Coping Disaster 9/11 attacks
This research was partially supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Grant MH68853 to Dr. North.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The study protocol was approved by Institutional Review Boards of each participating institution, and patients provided written consent prior to participation.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Text Revision (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Jones, R. P., & Cox, D. (2017). America’s changing religious identity. Washington, DC: Public Religion Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Lipka, M., & Gecewicz, C. (2017). More Americans now say they’re spiritual but not religious. Retrieved from the Pew Research Center website. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/06. Accessed 25 Feb 2019.
- North, C. S., Pfefferbaum, B., Robins, L. N., & Smith, E. M. (2001). The disaster supplement to the diagnostic interview schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV/DS). St. Louis: Washington University.Google Scholar
- North, C. S., Pollio, D. E., Hong, B. A., Pandya, A., Smith, R. P., & Pfefferbaum, B. (2015). The postdisaster prevalence of major depression relative to PTSD in survivors of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center selected from affected workplaces. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 60, 119–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- North, C. S., Pollio, D. E., Smith, R. P., King, R. V., Pandya, A., Surís, A. M., et al. (2011). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder among employees of New York City companies affected by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 5, S205–S213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C. G., & Wulff, K. M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2014). The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/2014/05/07theshifting-religious-identity-of-latinos-in-the-united-states/. Accessed 25 Feb 2019.
- Pew Research Center. (2015). U.S. Public becoming less religious. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/2015/11/03/u-s-public-becoming-less-religious/. Accessed 25 Feb 2019.
- Robins, L. N., Cottler, L. B., Compton, W. M., Bucholz, K., North, C. S., & Rourke, K. M. (2000). Diagnostic interview schedule for the DSM-IV (DIS-IV). St. Louis: Washington University.Google Scholar
- Young, B. H. (2006). The immediate response to disaster: guidelines for adult psychological first aid. In E. C. Ritchie, P. J. Watson, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Interventions following mass violence and disasters: Strategies for mental health practice (pp. 135–154). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar