The Effect of Religious Intervention Using Prayer for Quality of Life and Psychological Status of Patients with Permanent Pacemaker

  • Ebrahim Naimi
  • Owrang Eilami
  • Amin Babuei
  • Karim Rezaei
  • Moslem MoslemiradEmail author
Original Paper


The development of heart disease, followed by the pacemaker implantation, has reduced the quality and psychological problems for patients. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of prayer on the quality of life and the psychological status of patients with permanent pacemaker. This is a quasi-experimental study in which 75 patients were assigned to experimental and control groups. Religious intervention was conducted for the experimental group, including the Tavasol prayer and four recommended (mustahab) remembrances in 7 sessions. Before and after the intervention, the patients were provided with the quality of life questionnaire and psychological status. Then, the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests. Before intervention, there was no difference between quality of life status and psychological status of patients, but after intervention, their quality of life increased and their psychological status improved significantly. The implementation of religious intervention based on prayer positively affects the quality of life and psychological status of patients; thus, implementing this intervention is necessary for patients.


Prayer Remembrance Religious intervention Cardiac patients 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All the procedures undertaken in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Research Review Committee.

Informed Consent

They received no payment, and patients could leave the study at any time during the study. The patients were randomly assigned to the spiritual intervention group and control group. The patients could be excluded from the study at any time during the study.


  1. Ahmed, U., & Tanwir, F. (2015). Association of periodontal pathogenesis and cardiovascular diseases: A literature review. Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, 13(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  2. Alhaji, M. M., Tan, J., Hamid, M., Timbuak, J. A., Naing, L., & Tuah, N. (2018). Determinants of quality of life as measured with variants of SF-36 in patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease. Saudi Medical Journal, 39(7), 653–661.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ataei, E., Dalvandi, A., & Nikpajouh, A. (2013). The effect of patient education about self-care behaviors with media clips on self-care among patients with permanent pacemaker. Iranian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 2(3), 6–15.Google Scholar
  4. Bagheri, S. H. S., Iranmanesh, S., Rayyani, M., Dehghan, M., Tirgari, B., & Hosseini, S. H. (2018). Post-traumatic stress and growth among CPR survivors in the southeast of Iran. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. Scholar
  5. Borji, M. (2017). Investigating the effect of home care on death anxiety in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Govaresh, 22(2), 131–132.Google Scholar
  6. Borji, M., Nourmohammadi, H., Otaghi, M., Salimi, A. H., & Tarjoman, A. (2017a). Positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression, anxiety and stress of family caregivers of patients with prostate cancer: A randomized clinical trial. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP, 18(12), 3207.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Borji, M., Otaghi, M., & Kazembeigi, S. (2017b). The impact of Orem’s self-care model on the quality of life in patients with type II diabetes. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 10(1), 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borji, M., Otaghi, M., Salimi, E., & Sanei, P. (2017c). Investigating the effect of performing the quiet time protocol on the sleep quality of cardiac patients. Biomedical Research, 28(16).Google Scholar
  9. Borji, M., Shahbazi, F., Nariman, S., Otaghi, M., & Safari, S. (2018). Investigating the relationship between mother–child bonding and maternal mental health. Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics, 9(1), e14014. Scholar
  10. Bousquet, J., Bullinger, M., Fayol, C., Marquis, P., Valentin, B., & Burtin, B. (1994). Assessment of quality of life in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis with the French version of the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 94(2), 182–188.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Haller, H., Dobos, G., & Michalsen, A. (2015). A systematic review of yoga for heart disease. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(3), 284–295.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Dalgaard, F., Ruwald, M. H., Lindhardt, T. B., Gislason, G. H., Torp-Pedersen, C., & Pallisgaard, J. L. (2018). Patients with atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker: Temporal changes in patient characteristics and pharmacotherapy. PLoS ONE, 13(3), e0195175.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Dehghan, M., Alavi, S. H., Iranmanesh, S., & Khoshab, H. (2017). Burst out of the dead land by the help of spirituality: A case study of living with blindness and cancer. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(3), 896–906.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Fei, L., Shuang, M., Chen, L., Guo, K., & Han, Y. (2017). Emergency nursing of the severe complication during the implantation of permanent pacemaker. Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing, 33(1), 21–23.Google Scholar
  15. Ghadiri, M., & Motaghi, M. (2016). Homeopathy impact on physical health aspects of quality of life of patients with chronic headache in Isfahan in 2015. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 9(1), 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson, J. L., Leslie, C. E., & Hondorp, S. N. (2018). Depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult congenital heart disease: Prevalence, health impact and treatment. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. Scholar
  17. Khazanie, P., Hellkamp, A. S., Fonarow, G. C., Curtis, L. H., Al-Khatib, S. M., & Hernandez, A. F. (2018). Permanent pacemaker use among patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: Findings from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) National Registry. American Heart Journal, 198, 123–128.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Krieger, E. V., & Fernandes, S. M. (2014). Heart failure caused by congenital left-sided lesions. Heart Failure Clinics, 10(1), 155–165.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335–343.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Masoumi, M., Jokar, Z., Razaghzadeh, R., & Rabiei, Z. (2017). Comparison of the effects of Quran and instrumental music on the spiritual health of hemodialysis patients. Nursing of the Vulnerable Journal, 4(10), 24–34.Google Scholar
  21. McClelland, S., III, Henrikson, C. A., Ciporen, J. N., Jaboin, J. J., & Mitin, T. (2018). Tumor treating fields utilization in a glioblastoma patient with a preexisting cardiac pacemaker: The first reported case. World Neurosurgery, 119, 58–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miranda, J., Stiles, M., Lever, N., & Mahadevan, H. (2018). Prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED). Heart, Lung and Circulation, 27, S13–S14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohammad, K. M., & Shariatnia, K. (2017). Effectiveness of spiritual therapy on the life quality of the women with breast cancer in Tehran, 15, 107–118.Google Scholar
  24. Molnár, I., Máté, A., Szőke, H., & Hegyi, G. (2018). Effects of permanent acupuncture of YNSA (Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture) on quality of life in patients suffering from post-stroke syndrome. International Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 11(3), 00356.Google Scholar
  25. Nikfarjam, M. (2011). The efficacy of religious training (prayer) on the improvement of the schizophrenic patients’ quality of life at Sina Psychiatric Hospital (Bakhtiari Province, 2011). Arak Medical University Journal, 3(5).Google Scholar
  26. Otaghi, M., Qavam, S., Norozi, S., Borji, M., & Moradi, M. (2017). Investigating the effect of lavender essential oil on sleep quality in patients candidates for angiography. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 10(1), 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Polikandrioti, M., Koutelekos, I., Vasilopoulos, G., Gerogianni, G., Gourni, M., Zyga, S., et al. (2018). Anxiety and depression in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: Prevalence and associated factors. Cardiology Research and Practice. Scholar
  28. Pramesona, B. A., & Taneepanichskul, S. (2018). The effect of religious intervention on depressive symptoms and quality of life among Indonesian elderly in nursing homes: A quasi-experimental study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 13, 473.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Saffari, M., Zeidi, I., & Pakpour, A. (2012). Role of religious beliefs in quality of life of patients with cancer. Hakim Research Journal, 15(3), 243–250.Google Scholar
  30. Salehi, M., & Motaghi, M. (2018). The effect of continuous care model on care burden and coping behavior of diabetic older adults’ caregivers in Poldokhtar City. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 12(2), 204–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Salim, S., Yamin, M., Alwi, I., & Setiati, S. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of SF-36 quality of life questionnaire on patients with permanent pacemakers. Acta Medica Indonesiana, 49(1), 10–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Seyam, S., Heidarnia, A. R., Sadat Tavafian, S., سیام, ش., حیدرنیا, ع., & طوافیان, ص. ا. (2013). Quality of life and factors related to it in cardiovascular patients after heart surgery.Google Scholar
  33. Sharif, N. S. H., Hojjati, H., Nazari, R., Qorbani, M., & Akhoondzade, G. (2012). The effect of prayer on mental health of hemodialysis patients. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing (IJCCN), 5, 29–34.Google Scholar
  34. Tajbakhsh, F., Hosseini, M., Sadeghi Ghahroudi, M., Fallahi Khoshkenab, M., Rokofian, A., & Rahgozar, M. (2014). The effect of religious-spiritual care on anxiety post surgery coronary artery bypass graft patients. Iranian Journal of Rehabilitation Research in Nursing (IJRN), 1(1).Google Scholar
  35. Tonsing, K. N. (2014). Psychometric properties and validation of Nepali version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 63–66.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Verschueren, S., Eskes, A. M., Maaskant, J. M., Roest, A. M., Latour, C. H., & Op Reimer, W. S. (2018). The effect of exercise therapy on depressive and anxious symptoms in patients with ischemic heart disease: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 105, 80–91.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Ware, J. E., Jr., & Gandek, B. (1998). Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 903–912.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Webb, J. G., & Sathananthan, J. (2018). Left bundle branch block and new permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Are they benign?. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebrahim Naimi
    • 1
  • Owrang Eilami
    • 2
  • Amin Babuei
    • 3
  • Karim Rezaei
    • 4
  • Moslem Moslemirad
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Faulty of HealthYasuj University of Medical ScienceYasujIran
  2. 2.School of Medicine Social, Determinants of Health Research CenterYasuj University of Medical SciencesYasujIran
  3. 3.Deputy of Development of ManagementYasuj University of Medical ScienceYasujIran
  4. 4.Determinants of Health Research CenterYasuj University of Medical SciencesYasujIran
  5. 5.Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasuj University of Medical SciencesYasujIran

Personalised recommendations