The Role of Religious Socialization and Religiosity in African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Sexual Initiation
- 31 Downloads
This study determined the nature of the associations between religious socialization, religiosity, and adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (n = 1170), a nationally representative study of black adolescents. Factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and logistic regression were used to evaluate hypotheses. Results indicated that as black adolescents received more messages about religious beliefs and practices, their religiosity was greater and, in turn, they were less likely to report sexual initiation; findings varied by ethnicity, gender, and age. Findings contribute to understanding religious socialization and its association with sexual initiation.
KeywordsReligious socialization Religiosity Black adolescents Sexual initiation
The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) is supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; U01-MH57716) with supplemental support from the OBSSR Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the University of Michigan. Dr. Taggart was supported by a pre-doctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (T32AI007001), a post-doctoral fellowship supported by Award Numbers T32MH020031 and P30MH062294 from the National Institute of Mental Health, and was a Scholar with the HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Trauma Training Program (HA-STTP), at the University of California, Los Angeles; supported through an award from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R25DA035692). Dr. Powell was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (K01DA032611). Dr. Chatters was supported by a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Promoting Ethnic Diversity in Public Health (R25GM058641).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the original study.
- Clausen, J. A., Brim, O. G., Inkeles, A., Lippitt, R., Maccoby, E. E., & Smith, M. B. (1968). Socialization and society. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
- Cueto, S., & Leon, J. (2016). Early sexual initiation among adolescents: A longitudinal analysis for 15-year-olds in Peru. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 50(2), 186–203.Google Scholar
- DeHaan, L. G., Yonker, J. E., & Affholter, C. (2011). More than enjoying the sunset: Conceptualization and measurement of religiosity for adolescents and emerging adults and its implications for developmental inquiry. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 30(3), 184–196.Google Scholar
- DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Thousand Oaks: Sage publications.Google Scholar
- Epstein, M., Bailey, J. A., Manhart, L. E., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Haggerty, K. P., et al. (2014). Understanding the link between early sexual initiation and later sexually transmitted infection: test and replication in two longitudinal studies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(4), 435–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2008). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, S(1), 3-17.Google Scholar
- Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.Google Scholar
- Hunt, S. (2013). Religion and everyday life. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Jackson, J. S., Torres, M., Caldwell, C. H., Neighbors, H. W., Nesse, R. M., Taylor, R. J., et al. (2004). The National Survey of American Life: A study of racial, ethnic and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health. International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 13(4), 196–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joe, S., Baser, R. S., Neighbors, H. W., Caldwell, C. H., & Jackson, J. S. (2009). 12-month and lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among black adolescents in the National Survey of American Life. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 271–282.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kent, M. M. (2007). Immigration and America’s black population (Vol. 62): Population Reference Bureau Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- King, P. E., & Roeser, R. W. (2009). Religion and spirituality in adolescent development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
- MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Mediation analysis. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
- Miller, A. S., & Hoffmann, J. P. (1995). Risk and religion: An explanation of gender differences in religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 63–75.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (2007). Mplus. Statistical analysis with latent variables. Version, 3 Google Scholar
- Nonnemaker, J. M., McNeely, C. A., & Blum, R. W. (2003). Public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent health risk behaviors: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Social Science and Medicine, 57(11), 2049–2054. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(03)00096-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ojikutu, B., Nnaji, C., Sithole, J., Schneider, K. L., Higgins-Biddle, M., Cranston, K., et al. (2013). All black people are not alike: differences in HIV testing patterns, knowledge, and experience of stigma between U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born blacks in Massachusetts. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 27(1), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2012.0312.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C. G., & Wulff, K. M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders, and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pennell, B.-E., Bowers, A., Carr, D., Chardoul, S., Cheung, G.-Q., Dinkelmann, K., et al. (2004). The development and implementation of the national comorbidity survey replication, the national survey of American life, and the national Latino and Asian American survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research., 13(4), 241–269. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- United States Census Bureau (2011). The foreign born from Latin America and the Caribbean: 2010. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acsbr10-15.pdf.
- Waters, M. C. (2001). Growing up West Indian and African American: Gender and class differences in the second generation. In N. Foner (Ed.), Islands in the city: West Indian migration to New York (pp. 193–215). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Waters, M. C. (2009). Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realitie. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Woods-Jaeger, B. A., Carlson, M., Taggart, T., Riggins, L., Lightfoot, A. F., & Jackson, M. R. (2014). Engaging African American faith-based organizations in adolescent HIV prevention. Journal of Religion and Health, 54, 1–17.Google Scholar