Coping Mechanisms for Psychosomatic Symptoms among Aging Roman Catholic German priests
- 159 Downloads
To identify and investigate coping mechanisms and other factors which may impact upon the psychosomatic symptoms of aging German Roman Catholic priests. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 499 aging German Roman Catholic priests with standardized questionnaires: Brief Symptom Inventory, Coping Inventory Stressful Situations, and Religious Coping Scale. Task-Oriented Coping exhibited a significant difference between the two groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated that psychosomatic symptoms could be best predicted by means of Task-Oriented Coping mechanisms, identification with priesthood, and by a low Negative Religious Coping. The success of adaptive coping processes for older clergy may depend on how they employ strategies, strengthen their spiritual dimensions, and manage important psychosocial aspects of aging. In our sample, Depression and Somatization are explained best by Emotion-Oriented Coping. It is desirable for aging priests to be aware of protective factors like Role Identification, Task-Oriented Coping, and low Negative Religious Coping, which may be helpful in improving their psychological well-being.
KeywordsAging priests Psychosomatic symptoms Depressive symptoms Coping mechanisms Religious coping
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
It was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Abdelsayed, L. M., Bustrum, J. M., Tisdale, T. C., Reimer, K. S., & Camp, C. A. (2013). The impact of personality on God image, religious coping, and religious motivation among Coptic Orthodox priests. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16(2), 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2011.652604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baltes, P. B., & Mayer, K. U. (2001). The Berlin aging study: Aging from 70 to 100. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Bono, G., & McCullough, M. E. (2004). Religion, forgiveness, and adjustment in older adulthood. In K. W. Schaie, N. Krause, & A. Booth (Eds.), Religious influences on health and well-being in the elderly (pp. 163–186). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Campos, M., Páez, D., & Velasco, C. (2004). Afrontamiento y regulación emocional de hechos traumáticos: un estudio longitudinal sobre el 11-M. Ansiedad y Estrés, 10(2–3), 277–286.Google Scholar
- Carels, R. A. (2004). The association between disease severity, functional status, depression and daily quality of life in congestive heart failure patients. Quality of Life Research, 13(1), 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:QURE.0000015301.58054.51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derogatis, L. (2001). BSI 18, Brief Symptom Inventory 18: Administration, scoring and procedures manual. Minneapolis: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
- Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00292.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Francis, L. J., & Rutledge, C. J. (2004). Personality and preference for rural ministry: Replication and reconsideration. Pastoral Psychology, 53(1), 43–48. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PASP.0000039324.77332.94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Frick, E., Büssing, A., Baumann, K., Weig, W., & Jacobs, C. (2016). Do self-efficacy expectation and spirituality provide a buffer against stress-associated impairment of health? A comprehensive analysis of the German Pastoral Ministry Study. Journal of Religion and Health, 55(2), 448–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Golden, G.Y. (1982). Coping with aging: Denial and avoidance in middleaged care-givers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Kane, M. N., & Jacobs, R. J. (2015a). “My Bishop told his priests that section 8 housing was an option”: Catholic priests, aging, and retirement in the United States. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 34(3), 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2015.1036153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lewis, C. A., Turton, D. W., & Francis, L. J. (2007). Clergy work-related psychological health, stress, and burnout: An introduction to this special issue of mental health, religion and culture. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 10(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670601070541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marcks, B. A., & Woods, D. W. (2005). A comparison of thought suppression to an acceptance-based technique in the management of personal intrusive thoughts: A controlled evaluation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(4), 433–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montesó, P., Ferre, C., Lleixa, M., Albacar, N., Aguilar, C., Sánchez, A., et al. (2012). Depression in the elderly: Study in a rural city in southern Catalonia. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 426–429. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01798.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Páez, D., & Costa, S. D. (2014). Regulación afectiva (de emociones y estado de ánimo) en el lugar de trabajo. Revista Psicologia Organizações e Trabalho, 14(2), 190–203.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I., Ano, G. G., & Wachholtz, A. (2005). The religious dimension of coping. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 479–495). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I., Desai, K. M., McConnell, K. M., Calhoun, L., & Tedeschi, R. (2006). Spirituality: A pathway to posttraumatic growth or decline. In L. Calhoun & R. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 121–137). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N., & Hahn, J. (2004). Religious coping methods as predictors of psychological, physical, and spiritual outcomes among medically ill elderly patients: A two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 713–730. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105304045366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Palmersheim, K. A. (2004). Social inequalities in health and well-being: The role of relational and religious protective factors How healthy are we? (pp. 90–123). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar