The Effectiveness of Spiritual Therapy on Spiritual Well-Being, Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in Patients on Hemodialysis

  • Akbar Darvishi
  • Masoumeh Otaghi
  • Shahram MamiEmail author
Original Paper


Spirituality is an important part of practice of the healthcare providers. Spiritual therapy is important for patients with chronic and end-stage diseases such as end-stage renal disease due to changes in physical, mental, social and spiritual needs. Promotion of spiritual well-being, self-esteem and self-efficacy is very important for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual therapy on spiritual well-being, self-esteem and self-efficacy in patients on hemodialysis. The quasi-experimental research design was pre–posttest with the control group. The statistical population was the patients on hemodialysis in Governmental Hospital of Shahid Mostafa in Ilam, Iran, in 2015. Twenty-four patients were entered to the study by convenience sampling. They were divided into experimental and control groups randomly. Twelve 60-min sessions of spiritual therapy were held for the experimental group twice a week. The tools included spiritual well-being scale of Paloutzian and Ellison, Self Esteem Inventory of Cooper Smith and Self-Efficacy Scale of Sherer. Data were analyzed by SPSS software through descriptive and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance). p Values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results indicated that the scores in the experimental group changed in spiritual health from 39.32 ± 3.38 to 43.40 ± 2.82, in self-esteem from 42.65 ± 2.61 to 45.90 ± 3.88 and in self-efficacy from 40.99 ± 2.19 to 44.65 ± 2.58 which was significant compared with the control group (p = 0.01). Spiritual therapy can be used as an effective intervention to improve spiritual well-being, self-esteem and self-efficacy in patients on hemodialysis. This intervention is directed to holistic care. It can be done by interdisciplinary participation in caring and psychological teams.


End-stage renal disease Health care Quasi-experimental Clinical psychology 



This article is based on a Master’s thesis in clinical psychology (Akbar Darvishi, No. 63920701942008) in Islamic Azad University, Unit of Science and Research, Branch of Ilam. The authors thank all patients, their families and the staff of the dialysis center of Shahid Mostafa Hospital in Ilam for actively participating in this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

Research involves human.

Informed Consent

Assign the patients randomly.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of HumanisticIslamic Azad UniversityUnit of IlamIran

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