What Makes You So Sure? Dogmatism, Fundamentalism, Analytic Thinking, Perspective Taking and Moral Concern in the Religious and Nonreligious

Original Paper

Abstract

Better understanding the psychological factors related to certainty in one’s beliefs (i.e., dogmatism) has important consequences for both individuals and social groups. Generally, beliefs can find support from at least two different routes of information processing: social/moral considerations or analytic/empirical reasoning. Here, we investigate how these two psychological constructs relate to dogmatism in two groups of individuals who preferentially draw on the former or latter sort of information when forming beliefs about the world—religious and nonreligious individuals. Across two studies and their pooled analysis, we provide evidence that although dogmatism is negatively related to analytic reasoning in both groups of individuals, it shares a divergent relationship with measures of moral concern depending on whether one identifies as religious or not. Study 1 showed that increasing levels of dogmatism were positively related to prosocial intentions among the religious and negatively related to empathic concern among the nonreligious. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by showing that perspective taking is negatively related to dogmatism in both groups, an effect which is particularly robust among the nonreligious. Study 2 also showed that religious fundamentalism was positively related to measures of moral concern among the religious. Because the current studies used a content-neutral measure to assess dogmatic certainty in one’s beliefs, they have the potential to inform practices for most effectively communicating with and persuading religious and nonreligious individuals to change maladaptive behavior, even when the mode of discourse is unrelated to religious belief.

Keywords

Religion Dogmatism Moral concern Perspective taking Default mode network (DMN) Task-positive network (TPN) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Gordon Pennycook and one anonymous reviewer for helpful suggestions throughout the revision process.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Both the authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Participants

All studies were approved by Case Western Reserve University’s Institutional Review Board. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jared Parker Friedman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anthony Ian Jack
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, College of Arts and SciencesCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Inamori International Center for Ethics and ExcellenceCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Organizational Behavior, Weatherhead School of ManagementCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, College of Arts and SciencesCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  5. 5.Department of Neurology, Medical SchoolCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  6. 6.Department of Neurosciences, Medical SchoolCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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