Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 58, Issue 5, pp 1537–1560 | Cite as

Spiritual Health: A Concept Analysis

  • Azita Jaberi
  • Marzieh MomennasabEmail author
  • Shahrzad Yektatalab
  • Abbas Ebadi
  • Mohammad Ali Cheraghi
Original Paper


Spiritual health has attracted a lot of attention in health-related and nursing sciences and numerous researches. Yet, this concept has remained complex and ambiguous, and there is no consensus in this regard. This ambiguity can be challenging for holistic nursing; therefore, clarification of the concept is required for development of nursing knowledge. The present study aimed to explore the concept of spiritual health in health-related and nursing literature. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, 1995) concept analysis method was used in this study. The results were categorized as antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of spiritual health. The critical attributes extracted for spiritual health included transcendence, purposefulness and meaningfulness, faithfulness, harmonious interconnectedness, integrative power, multidimensionality, and holistic being. Besides, the antecedents of spiritual health included capability and potentiality for transcendence, and spiritual awareness. Finally, well-being and moral development were the outcomes of spiritual health. Spiritual health is one of the basic aspects of health and providing a clear theoretical definition can result in a common understanding of this concept for nurses. Clarifying this concept would also be useful for provision of spiritual care interventions and development of nursing theories.


Concept analysis Nursing Spiritual health 



This manuscript was a part of the Ph.D. dissertation written by Azita Jaberi and financially supported by the Vice-Chancellor for Research Affairs of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (No. 93-7216). Hereby, the authors would like to thank Ms. A. Keivanshekouh at the Research Improvement Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for improving the use of English in the manuscript.


The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Support was received from the Vice-Chancellor for Research Affairs of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Author Dr. Momennasab has received research grants from Vice-Chancellor for Research Affairs of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Author Azita Jaberi is a member of Student Research Committee. The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


  1. Albaugh, J. (2003). Spirituality and life-threatening illness: A phenomenologic study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 30, 593–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anandarajah, G., & Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and medical practice. American Family Physician, 63, 81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. R. (2010). The feminine face of God: The unfolding of the sacred in women. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  4. Astedt-Kurki, P. (1995). Religiosity as a dimension of well-being a challenge for professional nursing. Clinical Nursing Research, 4, 387–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, M., Moran, S., & Graham, M. (2009). Creating a spiritual tapestry: Nurses’ experiences of delivering spiritual care, to patients in an Irish hospice. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 15, 42–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks, R. (1980). Health and the spiritual dimension: Relationships and implications for professional preparation programs. Journal of School Health, 50, 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banks, R. L., Poehler, D. L., & Russell, R. D. (1984). Spirit and human-spiritual interaction as a factor in health and in health education. Health Education, 15, 16–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks-Wallace, J., & Parks, L. (2004). It’s all sacred: African American women’s perspectives on spirituality. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 25, 25–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker, E. (1989). Spiritual well-being in appalachian women. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  10. Barker, S. L., & Floersch, J. E. (2010). Practitioners’ understandings of spirituality: Implications for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 46, 357–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barney, R. J., & Buckingham, S. L. (2012). HIV/AIDS and spirituality in a South African township: A qualitative study. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 31, 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benjamin, P., & Looby, F. (1998). Defining the nature of spirituality in the context of Maslow’s and Rodger’s theories. Couns Values, 49, 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bensley, R. J. (1991). Defining spiritual health: A review of the literature. Journal of Health Education, 22, 287–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benzein, E., Norberg, A., & Saveman, B. (1998). Hope: Future imagined reality. The meaning of hope as described by a group of healthy pentecostalists. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28, 1063–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bjarnason, D. (2007). Concept analysis of religiosity. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 19, 350–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloomfield, H., & Kory, R. (1978). The holistic way to health and happiness. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  17. Boswell, G. H., Kahana, E., & Dilworth-Anderson, P. (2006). Spirituality and healthy lifestyle behaviors: Stress counter-balancing effects on the well-being of older adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 45, 587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley, C. (2011). Women in AA: “Sharing experience, strength and hope” the relational nature of spirituality. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 30, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradshaw, A. (1994). Lighting the lamp: The spiritual dimension of nursing care. London: Scutari Press.Google Scholar
  20. Buck, H. G. (2006). Spirituality: concept analysis and model development. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20, 288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buck, H. G., & Meghani, S. H. (2012). Spiritual expressions of African Americans and Whites in cancer pain. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30, 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burkhardt, M. A. (1989). Spirituality: An analysis of the concept. Holistic Nursing Practice, 3, 69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burkhardt, M. (1994). Becoming and connecting: elements of spirituality for women. Holistic Nursing Practice, 8, 12–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burkhart, L., Schmidt, L., & Hogan, N. (2011). Development and psychometric testing of the Spiritual Care Inventory instrument. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67, 2463–2472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bush, T., & Bruni, N. (2008). Spiritual care as a dimension of holistic care: A relational interpretation. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 14, 539–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Campbell, C. (1984). Nursing diagnosis and intervention in nursing practice. New York, NY: Delmar.Google Scholar
  27. Carr, E. W., & Morris, T. (1996). Spirituality and patients with advanced cancer: A social work response. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 14, 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carroll, B. (2001). A phenomenological exploration of the nature of spirituality and spiritual care. Mortality, 6, 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carson, V. B., & Koenig, H. G. (1989). Spiritual dimensions of nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.Google Scholar
  30. Chambers. (Ed.). (2014). The chambers-dictionary. Quercus.Google Scholar
  31. Chapman, L. S. (1986). Spiritual health: A component missing from health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 1, 38–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chapman, L. (1987). Developing a useful perspectine on spiritual health: Wellbeing, spiritual potential and the search for meaning. American Journal for Health Promotion, 1, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (1999). Theory and nursing: Integrated knowledge development. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  34. Chiu, L., Clark, M. B., & Daroszewski, E. B. (2000). Lived experience of spirituality in Taiwanese women with breast cancer. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22, 29–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chiu, L., Emblen, J. D., van Hofwegen, L., Sawatzky, R., & Meyerhoff, H. (2004). An integrative review of the concept of spirituality in the health sciences. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26, 405–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chung, L. Y. F., Wong, F. K. Y., & Chan, M. F. (2007). Relationship of nurses’ spirituality to their understanding and practice of spiritual care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58, 158–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Como, J. M. (2007). Spiritual practice: A literature review related to spiritual health and health outcomes. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21, 224–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cotton, S., Tsevat, J., Szaflarski, M., Kudel, I., Sherman, S. N., Feinberg, J., et al. (2006). Changes in religiousness and spirituality attributed to HIV/AIDS: Are there sex and race differences? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, S14–S20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coughlin, S. (2008). Surviving cancer or other serious illness: A review of individual and community resources. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 58, 60–64.Google Scholar
  40. Coyle, J. (2002). Spirituality and health: Towards a framework for exploring the relationship between spirituality and health. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37, 589–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Crossley, J. P., & Salter, D. P. (2005). A question of finding harmony: A grounded theory study of clinical psychologists’ experience of addressing spiritual beliefs in therapy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78, 295–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Daaleman, T. P., Cobb, A. K., & Frey, B. B. (2001). Spirituality and well-being: An exploratory study of the patient perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1503–1511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Daly, C. (2005). Definition of terms: Spirituality versus religiousness. Southern Medical Journal, 98, 1238–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Delgado, C. (2005). A discussion of the concept of spirituality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18, 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Diaz, D. P. (1993). Foundations for spirituality: Establishing the viability of spirituality within the health discipline. Journal ofHealth Education, 24, 324–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Draper, P., & Mcsherry, W. (2002). A critical review of spirituality and spiritual assessment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39, 1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dunn, K. (2008). Development and psychometric testing of a new geriatric spiritual well-being scale. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 3, 161–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Edwards, A., Pang, N., Shiu, V. & Chan, C. (2010). The understanding of spirituality and the potential role of spiritual care in end-of-life and palliative care: A meta-study of qualitative research. Palliative Medicine, 24(8), 753–770. doi: 10.1177/0269216310375860.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ehman, J. W., Ott, B. B., Short, T. H., Ciampa, R. C., & Hansen-Flaschen, J. (1999). Do patients want physicians to inquire about their spiritual or religious beliefs if they become gravely ill? Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 1803–1806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Elham, H., Hazrati, M., Momennasab, M., & Sareh, K. (2015). The effect of need-based spiritual/religious intervention on spiritual well-being and anxiety of elderly people. Holistic Nursing Practice, 29, 136–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ellison, C. W. (1983). Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 11, 330–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ellison, C. G., & Fan, D. (2008). Daily spiritual experiences and psychological well-being among US adults. Social Indicators Research, 88, 247–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Emblen, J. D. (1992). Religion and spirituality defined according to current use in nursing literature. Journal of Professional Nursing, 8, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (1999). Religion and spirituality? The roles of sanctification and the concept of God. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 9, 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fehring, R., Miller, M. J., & Shaw, C. (1997). Spiritual well-being, religiosity, hope, depression and other mood states in elderly people coping with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 24, 663–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fernsler, J. I., Klemm, P., & Miller, M. A. (1999). Spiritual well-being and demands of illness in people with colorectal cancer. Cancer Nursing, 22, 134–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fisher, J. (1998). Spiritual Health: Its nature and place in the school curriculum. PhD, The University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  58. Fisher, J. (2009). Understanding and assessing spiritual health. In M. Desouza & E. Al (Eds.), International handbook of education for spirituality, care and well-being. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  59. Fisher, J. (2010). Development and application of a spiritual well-being questionnaire called SHALOM. Religions, 1, 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fisher, J. (2011). The four domains model: connecting spirituality, health and well-being. Religions, 2, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fisher, J. W., Francis, L. J., & Johnson, P. (2000). Assessing spiritual health via four domains of spiritual wellbeing: The SH4DI. Pastoral Psychology, 49, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Frankl, V. (1959). Man’s search for meaning: An Introduction to logotheraphy. New York: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  63. Frankl, V. (1969). The will to meaning. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  64. Frey, B. B., Daaleman, T. P., & Peyton, V. (2005). Measuring a dimension of spirituality for health research validity of the spirituality index of well-being. Research on Aging, 27, 556–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fry, A. (1998). Spirituality, communication and mental health nursing: The tacit interdiction. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 7, 25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fryback, P. (1993). Health for people with a terminal diagnosis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 6, 147–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gall, Tl, Malette, J., & Guirguis-Younger, M. (2011). Spirituality and religiousness: A diversity of definitions. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 13, 158–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goddard, N. C. (1995). ‘Spirituality as integrative energy’: A philosophical analysis as requisite precursor to holistic nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 808–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gomez, A. R., & Fisher, J. W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the spiritual well-being questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1975–1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Goodloe, N. R., & Arreola, P. M. (1992). Spiritual health: Out of the closet. Journal of Health Education, 23, 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gove, P. B. (Ed.). (1961). Webster's third new international dictionary. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press.Google Scholar
  72. Gray, E. D. (1988). Sacred dimensions of women’s experience. Wellesley, MA: Roundtable Press.Google Scholar
  73. Greasley, P., Chiu, L. F., & Gartland, R. M. (2001). The concept of spiritual care in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 629–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Griffith, J., Caron, C. D., Desrosiers, J., & Thibeault, R. (2007). Defining spirituality and giving meaning to occupation: The perspective of community-dwelling older adults with autonomy loss. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Haase, J. E., Britt, T., Coward, D. D., Leidy, N. K., & Penn, P. E. (1992). Simultaneous Concept analysis of spiritual perspective, hope, acceptance and self-transcendence. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24, 141–147.Google Scholar
  76. Harvey, I. S., & Silverman, M. (2007). The role of spirituality in the self-management of chronic illness among older African and whites. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 22, 205–220.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hawks, S. R., Hull, M. L., Thalman, R. L., & Richins, P. M. (1995). Review of spiritual health: Definition, role, and intervention strategies in health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9, 371–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Heyse-Moore, L. (1996). On spiritual pain in the dying. Mortality, 1, 297–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hiatt, J. F. (1986). Spirituality, medicine, and healing. Southern Medical Journal, 79, 736–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hill, P. C. & Pargament, K. I. (2008). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, S(1), 3–17.Google Scholar
  81. Hodge, D. R., & Mcgrew, C. C. (2006). Spirituality, religion, and the interrelationship: A nationally representative study. Journal of Social Work Education, 42, 637–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hungelmann, J., Kenkel-Rossi, E., Klassen, L., & Stollenwerk, R. M. (1985). Spiritual well-being in older adults: Harmonious interconnectedness. Journal of Religion and Health, 24, 147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hungelmann, J., Kenkel-Rossi, E., Klassen, L., & Stollenwerk, R. (1996). Focus on spiritual well-being: Harmonious interconnectedness of mind-body-spirit—Use of the JAREL spiritual well-being scale: Assessment of spiritual well-being is essential to the health of individuals. Geriatric Nursing, 17, 262–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Johnson, B. (2008). A tale of two religious effects: Evidence for the protective and prosocial impact of organic religion. In K. K. Kline (Ed.), Authoritative communities: The scientific case for nurturing the whole child. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  85. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. (2005). Spiritual assessment [Online]. Available:
  86. Kahn, D., & Steeves, R. (1993). Spiritual well-being: A review of the research literature. Quality of Life: A Nursing Challenge, 2, 60–64.Google Scholar
  87. Karren, K. J., Hafen, B. Q., Smith, N. L., & Frandsen, K. J. (2002). Mind/body health: The effects of attitudes, emotions, and relationships. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.Google Scholar
  88. Killoran, M., Schlitz, M. J., & Lewis, N. (2002). Unremarkable recoveries: Normalizing adversity and cancer survival. Qualitative Health Research, 12, 208–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kim, M. J., Mcfarland, G. K., & Mclane, A. M. (1987). Pocket guide to nursing diagnosis. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  90. Klaas, D. (1998). Testing two elements of spirituality in depressed and nondepressed elders. International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research, 4, 452–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L., & Good, B. (1978). Culture, illness, and care, clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88, 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kociszewski, C. (2003). A Phenomenological pilot study of the nurses’ experience providing spiritual care. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 21, 131–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., & Titus, P. (2004). Religion, spirituality, and health in medically ill hospitalized older patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 554–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Koopsen, C. & Young, C. (2009). Health and human spirit. In C. Koopsen & C. Young (Eds.) Integrative health: A holistic approach for health professionals. Saudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Google Scholar
  96. Labun, E. (1988). Spiritual care: An element in nursing care planning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 13, 314–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lane, J. (1987). The care of the human spirit. Journal of Professional Nursing, 3, 332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., Kaplan, B. H., Greenberg, R. S., Logue, E., & Tyroler, H. A. (1989). The impact of religion on men’s blood pressure. Journal of Religious Health, 28, 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lazenby, J. M. (2010). On “spirituality”,“religion”, and “religions”: A concept analysis. Palliative and Supportive Care, 8, 469–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lazenby, M., Khatib, J., Al-Khair, F., & Neamat, M. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—SpiritualWell-being (FACIT-Sp) in an Arabic-speaking, predominantly Muslim population. Psycho-Oncology, 22, 220–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lee, L., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. (2008). Eastern and western spiritual beliefs and violent trauma: A US national community survey. Traumatology, 14, 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Levin, J. S., & Vanderpool, H. Y. (1989). Is religion therapeutically significant for hypertension? Social Science and Medicine, 29, 69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lim, J., & Yi, J. (2009). The effects of religiosity, spirituality, and social support on quality of life: A comparison between Korean American and Korean breast and gynecologic cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 36, 699–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lowry, L. (2012). A qualitative descriptive study of spirituality guided by the Neuman systems model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 25, 356–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Macquarrie, J. (1992). Paths in spirituality. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse.Google Scholar
  106. Mahlungulu, S., & Uys, L. (2004). Spirituality in nursing: an analysis of the concept. Curationis, 27, 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Makins, M. (Ed.). (1991). Collins English dictionary. HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  108. Markani, A. K., Yaghmaei, F., & Fard, M. K. (2012). Spirituality as experienced by Muslim oncology nurses in Iran. British Journal of Nursing, 21, S20–S25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Martsolf, D. S., & Mickley, J. R. (1998). The concept of spirituality in nursing theories: Differing world-views and extent of focus. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27, 294–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mathews, D. A., Mccullough, M. E., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., Sawyers, J. P., & Milano, J. P. (1998). Religious commitment and health status: A review of research and implications for family practice. Archives of Family Medicine, 7, 118–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. May, R. (1981). Freedom and destiny. New York: Delta.Google Scholar
  112. McBrien, B. (2006). A concept analysis of spirituality. British Journal of Nursing, 15, 42–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McClain, C. S., Rosenfeld, B., & Breitbart, W. (2003). Effect of spiritual well-being on end-of-life despair in terminally-ill cancer patients. The Lancet, 361, 1603–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & Thoresen, C. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 19, 211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McEven, M., & WILLS, E. M. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  116. McSherry, W. (2006). Making sense of spirituality in nursing and health care practice: An interactive approach. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  117. McSherry, W., & Cash, K. (2004). The language of spirituality: An emerging taxonomy. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41, 151–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. McSherry, W., & Jamieson, S. (2013). The qualitative findings from an online survey investigating nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 3170–3182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Meleis, A. I. (2005). Theoretical nursing. Philadelephia: JB Lippincott.Google Scholar
  120. Meleis, A. I. (2007). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philladelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  121. Meleis, A. I. (2012). Theoretical nursing: Development & progress. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  122. Meraviglia, M. (1999). Critical analysis of spirituality and its empirical indicators: Prayer and meaning in life. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17, 18–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Meraviglia, M. (2004). The effects of spirituality on wellbeing of people with lung cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 31, 89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Merriam-Webster. (2016). The merriam-webster dictionary. G. & C. Merriam Company Collection.Google Scholar
  125. Micozzi, M. S. (2006). Fundamentals of complementary and integrative medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  126. Micozzi, M. S. (2014). Fundamentals of complementary and alternative medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences.Google Scholar
  127. Miller, J. (1987). Wellness programs through the church: Available alternative for health education. Health Values, 11, 3–6.Google Scholar
  128. Miller, M. (1995). Culture, spirituality, and women’s health. Journal of Obstet Gynecology Neonatal Nursing, 24, 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58, 24–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Miner-Williams, D. (2006). Putting a puzzle together: Making spirituality meaningful for nursing using an evolving theoretical framework. Journal of Clinical Nursing and Health Sciences, 15, 811–821.Google Scholar
  131. Moberg, D. O. (1971). Spiritual well-being; background [and] issues. White house conference on aging, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  132. Moberg, D. O. (1984). Subjective measures of spiritual well-being. Review of Religious Research, 25, 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Moberg, D. O., & Brusek, P. M. (1978). Spiritual well-being: A neglected subject in quality of life research. Social Indicators Research, 5, 303–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Molzahn, A., Sheilds, L., Bruce, A., Stajduhar, K., Makaroff, K. S., Beuthin, R., et al. (2012). People living with serious illness: Stories of spirituality. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2, 2347–2356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Momennasab, M., Moattari, M., Abbaszade, A., & Shamshiri, B. (2012). Spirituality in survivors of myocardial infarction. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 17, 343–351.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Monod, S., Brennan, M., Rochat, E., Martin, E., Rochat, S., & Büla, J. C. (2011). Instruments measuring spirituality in clinical research: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26, 1345–1357.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Morrison-Orton, D. (2004). How rehabilitation professionals define the concepts of spirituality and religion when working with individuals with disabilities. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 3, 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Murray, R. B., & Zentner, J. B. (1989). Nursing concepts for health promotion. London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  139. Nagai-Jacobson., M. G., & Burkhardt, M. A. (1989). Spirituality: Cornerstone of holistic nursing practice. Holistic Nursing Practice, 3, 18–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. National Interfaith Coalition on Aging. (1975). Spiritual wellbeing: A definition. Athens, GA: National Interfaith Coalition on Aging (NICA).Google Scholar
  141. Newlin, K., Knafl, K., & Melkus, G. D. E. (2002). African-American spirituality: A concept analysis. Advances in Nursing Science, 25, 57–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, International. (2005). Nursing diagnoses: Definitions and classification. Irvine: Nursecom.Google Scholar
  143. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, International. (2009). Readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  144. O’brien, M. (1982). The need for spiritual integrity. In H. Yura & M. B. Walsh (Eds.), Human needs and the nursing process. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  145. O’Brien, M. (2008). A middle range theory of spiritual well-being in illness. Spirituality in nursing: Standing on holy ground. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Google Scholar
  146. Oh, P. J., & Kang, K. A. (2005). Spirituality: Concept analysis based on hybrid model. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 35, 709–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Oser, F. K., Scarlett, W. G., & Bucher, A. (2006). Religious and spiritual development throughout the life span. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  148. Osman, J., & Russel, R. (1979). The spiritual aspect of health. Journal of School Health, 49, 359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Paley, J. (2008). Spirituality and secularization: Nursing and the sociology of religion. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 175–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pargament, K. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  151. Pargament, K. I. (2001). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  152. Parsian, N., & Dunning, T. (2009). Developing and validating a questionnaire to measure spirituality: A psychometric process. Global Journal of Health Science, 1, 2–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Penman, J., Oliver, M., & Harrington, A. (2013). The relational model of spiritual engagement depicted by palliative care clients and caregivers. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 19, 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pesut, B. (2006). Fundamental or foundational obligation? Problematizing the ethical call to spiritual care in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science Quarterly, 29, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pesut, B. (2008). Spirituality and spiritual care in nursing fundamentals textbooks. Journal of Nursing Education, 47, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pesut, B., Fowler, M., Taylor, E. J., Reimer-Kirkham, S., & Sawatzky, R. (2008). Conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 2803–2810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Pesut, B., & Thorne, S. (2007). From private to public: Negotiating professional and personal identities in spiritual care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58, 396–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Powell, L. H., Shahabi, L., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Religion and spirituality: Linkages to physical health. American Psychologist, 58, 36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Puchalski, C. M. (2009). Ethical concerns and boundaries in spirituality and health. AMA Journal of Ethics, 11, 804–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Puchalski, C. M., Vitillo, R., Hull, S. K., & Reller, N. (2014). Improving the spiritual dimension of whole person care: Reaching national and international consensus. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17, 642–656.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Reed, P. G. (1987). Spirituality and well-being in terminally ill hospitalized adults. Research in Nursing & Health, 10, 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Reed, P. G. (1991). Toward a nursing theory of selftranscendence: Deductive reformulation using developmental theories. Advances in Nursing Science, 13, 64–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Reed, P. G. (1992). An emerging paradigm for the investigation of spirituality in nursing. Research in Nursing & Health, 15, 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rican, P. (2004). Spirituality: The story of a concept in the psychology of religion. Archive for the Psychology of Religion (Archiv für Religionspychologie), 26, 135–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rich, Y., & Cinamon, R. G. (2007). Conceptions of spirituality among Israeli Arab and Jewish late adolescents. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 47, 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Richardson, G. E., & Noland, M. P. (1983). Treating the spiritual dimension through educational imagery. Health Values, 8, 25–30.Google Scholar
  167. Riley, B. B., Perna, R., Tate, D. G., Forchheimer, M., Anderson, C., & Luera, G. (1998). Types of spiritual well-being among persons with chronic illness: Their relation to various forms of quality of life. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 258–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rodgers, B. (2006). Concepts, analysis and the development of nursing knowledge: The evolutionary cycle. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14, 330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rodgers, B. L., & Knafl, K. A. (2000). Concept development in nursing. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  170. Roehlkepartain, E. C., Benson, P. L., King, P. E. & Wagener, L. M. (2006). Religion, spirituality, and children’s physical health. In D. Oman & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.) The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  171. Roland, N. J., & Rogers, S. N. (2012). Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Clinical Otolaryngology, 37, 393–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ross, L. A. (1994). Spiritual aspects of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 439–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Ross, L. (1995). The spiritual dimension: Its importance to patients’ health, well-being and quality of life and its implications for nursing practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 32, 457–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rowe, M. M., & Allen, R. G. (2003). Spirituality as a means of coping with chronic illness. American Journal of Health Studies, 19, 62–66.Google Scholar
  175. Sawatzky, R., & Pesut, B. (2005). Attributes of spiritual care in nursing practice. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 23, 19–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Seaward, B. (2000). Stress and human spirituality 2000: At the cross roads of physics and metaphysics. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25, 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sessanna, L., Finnell, D., & Jezewski, M. A. (2007). Spirituality in nursing and health-related literature a concept analysis. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25, 252–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sheldon, L. (1996). An analysis of the concept of humour and its application to one aspect of children’s nursing. Journal of Advance Nursing, 24, 1175–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sherman, D. (1996). Nurses’willingness to care for AIDS patients and spirituality, social support, and death anxiety. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 28, 205–213.Google Scholar
  180. Sherwood, G. (2000). The power of nurse-client encounters: Interpreting spiritual themes. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 18, 159–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Smith, D. (1995). Power and spirituality in polio survivors: A study based on Rogers’ science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 8, 133–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Smith, J., & McSherry, W. (2004). Spirituality and child development: A concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45, 307–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Snyder, M., & Lindquist, R. (2006). Complementary/alternative therapies in nursing. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  184. Soeken, K., & Carson, V. (1987). Responding to the spiritual needs of the chronically ill. Nursing Clinics of North America, 22, 603–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Stevenson, A. (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  186. Stoll, R., & Stoll, I. (1989). The essence of spirituality in spiritual dimensions of nursing practice. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  187. Strawbridge, W. J., Shema, S. J., Cohen, R. D., & Kaplan, G. A. (2001). Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tanyi, R. A. (2002). Towards clarification of the meaning of spirituality. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39, 500–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tarakeshwar, N., Stanton, J., & Pargament, K. (2003). Religion: An overlooked dimension in cross-cultural psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 377–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Taylor, E. J., Amenta, M., & Highfield, M. (1995). Spiritual care practices of oncology nurses. Oncology Nursing Forum, 22, 31–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tvorogova, N. (2011). Spiritual well-being. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 193–203.Google Scholar
  192. Underwood, L. (2006). Ordinary spiritual experience: Qualitative research, interpretive guidelines, and population distribution for the daily spiritual experiences scale. Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie, 28, 181–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Underwood, L. G. (2011). The daily spiritual experience scale: Overview and results. Religions, 2, 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Unterrainer, H.-F., Ladenhauf, K. H., Wallner-Liebmann, S. J., & Fink, A. (2011). Different types of religious/spiritual well-being in relation to personality and subjective well-being. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Vachon, M., Fillion, L., & Achille, M. (2009). A conceptual analysis of spirituality at the end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12, 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vader, J. (2006). Spiritual health: The next frontier. European Journal of Public Health, 16, 457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. van Dierendonck, D. (2004). The construct validity of Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being and its extension with spiritual well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 629–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vandover, L., & Pfeiffer, J. (2012). Patients of parish nurses experience renewed spiritual identity: A grounded theory study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68, 1824–1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Waite, P. J., Hawks, S. R., & Gast, J. A. (1999). The correlation between spiritual well-being and health behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 13, 159–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (1995). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.Google Scholar
  201. Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2005). Strategies for theory construction ni nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  202. Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  203. Walton, J. (1996). Spiritual relationships a concept analysis. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 14, 237–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Walton, J. (1999). Spirituality of patients recovering from an acute myocardial infarction a grounded theory study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17, 34–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Walton, J. (2002). Finding a balance: A grounded theory study of spirituality in hemodialysis patients. Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses’ Association, 29, 447–456.Google Scholar
  206. Walton, J., & Sullivan, N. (2004). Men of prayer: Spirituality of men with prostate cancer a grounded theory study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 22, 133–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Weathers, E., Mccarthy, G. & Coffey, A. (2015). Concept analysis of spirituality: An evolutionary approach. Nursing Forum, 51(2), 79–96. doi: 10.1111/nuf.12128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. WHOQOL-SRPB-GROUP. (2006). A cross-cultural study of spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs as components of quality of life. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 1486–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Williams, B. (2008). An exploratory study of older adults perspectives’ of spirituality. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 22, 3–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wilner, J. (2014). Five reasons to develop and grow your spirituality [Online]. Psychcentral. Available:
  211. Woodgate, R. L., & Degner, L. F. (2003). A substantive theory of keeping the spirit alive: The spirit within children with cancer and their families. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 20, 103–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wright, M. (2004). Hospice care and models of spirituality. European Journal of Palliative Care, 11, 75–78.Google Scholar
  213. Yalom, I. (1982). The “terrestrial” meanings of life. International Forum for Logotherapy, 5, 92–102.Google Scholar
  214. Yang, K., & Wu, X. (2009). Spiritual intelligence of nurses in two Chinese social systems: A cross-sectional comparison study. Journal of Nursing Research, 17, 189–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Young, E. (1984). Spiritual health—an essential element in optimum health. Journal of American College Health, 32, 273–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., & Scott, A. B. (1999). The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality, 67, 889–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Student Research CommitteeShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and MidwiferyShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing FacultyBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.School of Nursing and MidwiferyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations