Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp 1937–1955 | Cite as

Spiritual Factors Predict State and Trait Anxiety

  • Lisa M. SteinerEmail author
  • Sarah Zaske
  • Sabrina Durand
  • Melanie Molloy
  • Rosana Arteta
Original Paper


This research study was designed to examine the effect of spiritual well-being and spirituality on state and trait anxiety. Two hundred and thirty-eight adults in the USA were surveyed using the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, Duke University Religion Index, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Participant Questionnaire. Results indicate that spiritual well-being can predict 39.1 % of an adult’s state anxiety and 37.9 % of trait anxiety. Furthermore, frequency of religious attendance, frequency of private religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity can predict 6.2 % of an adult’s state anxiety and 8.6 % of trait anxiety. Recommendations for researchers and implications for clinicians are discussed.


Anxiety State anxiety Trait anxiety Spiritual well-being Spirituality Adults 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa M. Steiner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarah Zaske
    • 1
  • Sabrina Durand
    • 1
  • Melanie Molloy
    • 1
  • Rosana Arteta
    • 1
  1. 1.Alliance Graduate School of CounselingNyack CollegeNyackUSA

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