Spiritual Factors Predict State and Trait Anxiety
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This research study was designed to examine the effect of spiritual well-being and spirituality on state and trait anxiety. Two hundred and thirty-eight adults in the USA were surveyed using the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, Duke University Religion Index, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Participant Questionnaire. Results indicate that spiritual well-being can predict 39.1 % of an adult’s state anxiety and 37.9 % of trait anxiety. Furthermore, frequency of religious attendance, frequency of private religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity can predict 6.2 % of an adult’s state anxiety and 8.6 % of trait anxiety. Recommendations for researchers and implications for clinicians are discussed.
KeywordsAnxiety State anxiety Trait anxiety Spiritual well-being Spirituality Adults
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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