Advertisement

Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 575–590 | Cite as

Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: The Association with Religiosity and Religious Coping

  • Guan Chong Ng
  • Salina Mohamed
  • Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman
  • Nor Zuraida Zainal
Original Paper

Abstract

There is a lack of studies looking into religiosity and religious coping in cancer patient. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the religiosity using Duke University Religion Index, religious coping using Brief Religious Coping Scale, anxiety and depression based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale among 200 cancer patients. The association between religiosity and religious coping with anxiety and depression was studied. The findings showed that subjects with anxiety or depression used more negative religious coping and had lower non-organization religiosity. Hence, measurements in reducing negative religious coping and encouraging religious activities could help to reduce psychological distress in cancer patients.

Keywords

Anxiety Depression Religious coping Religiosity Cancer 

References

  1. Al-Azri, M., Al-Awisi, H., & Al-Moundhri, M. (2009). Coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer-literature review and implications for developing countries. The Breast Journal, 15, 615–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ano, G. G., & Vasconcelles, E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A metaanalysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(4), 461–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aukst-Margetić, B., Jakovljević, M., & Margetić, B. (2002). Depression, cancer and religiosity. Psychiatria Danubina, 14, 9–20.Google Scholar
  4. Aukst-Margetić, B., & Margetić, B. (2005). Religiosity and health outcomes: Review of literature. Collegium Antropologicum, 29(1), 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergerot, C. D., Clark, K. L., Nonino, A., Waliany, S., Buso, M. M., & Loscalzo, M. (2015). Course of distress, anxiety, and depression in hematological cancer patients: Association between gender and grade of neoplasm. Palliative and Supportive Care, 13(2), 115–123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Block, S. D. (2006). Psychological issues in end-of-life care. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(3), 751–772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowie, J., Curbo, B., Laveist, T., Fitzgerald, S., & Pargament, K. (2001). The relationship between religious coping style and anxiety over breast cancer in African-American women. Journal of Religion and Health, 40, 411–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braam, A. W., Eeden, V. D., Prince, M. J., Beekman, A. T. F., Kivelä, S.-L., Lawlor, B. A., et al. (2001). Religion as a cross cultural determinant of depression in elderly Europeans: Results from the EURODEP collaboration. Psychological Medicine, 31, 803–814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 67–283.Google Scholar
  10. Derogatis, L. R., Morrow, G. R., Fetting, J., Penman, D., Piasetsky, S., Schmale, A. M., et al. (1983). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients. JAMA, 249(6), 751–757. doi: 10.1001/jama.1983.03330300035030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dimeo, F., Schmittel, A., Fietz, T., Schwartz, S., Köhler, P., Böning, D., et al. (2004). Physical performance, depression, immune status and fatigue in patients with hematological malignancies after treatment. Annals of Oncology, 15, 1237–1242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dull, V. T., & Skokan, L. A. (1995). A cognitive model of religion’s influence on health. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ell, K., Sanchez, K., Vourlekis, B., Lee, P. J., Dwight-Johson, M., Lagomasino, I., et al. (2005). Depression, correlates of depression, and receipt of depression care among low-income women with breast or gynecologic cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(13), 3052–3060.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Emblen, J. D. (1992). Religion and spirituality defined according to current use in nursing literature. Journal of Professional Nursing, 8, 41–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Exline, J. J., & Rose, E. (2005). Religious and spiritual struggles. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 315–330). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Fitchett, G., Murphy, P. E., Kim, J., Gibbons, J. L., Cameron, J. R., & Davis, J. A. (2004). Religious struggle: Prevalence correlates and mental health risks in diabetic, congestive heart failure, and oncology patients. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 34, 179–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedman, L. C., Lehane, D., Webb, J. A., Weinberg, A. D., & Cooper, H. P. (1994). Anxiety in medical situations and chemotherapy-related problems among cancer patients. Journal of Cancer Education, 9(1), 37–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gall, T. L. (2000). Integrating religious resources within a general model of stress and coping: Long-term adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Religion and Health, 64, 65–92.Google Scholar
  19. Gall, T. L. (2004). The role of religious coping in adjustment to prostate cancer. Cancer Nursing, 27(6), 454–461.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Garssen, B., & de Jager Meezenbroek, E. (2007). Response to letter from P. Salander. Psychooncology, 16, 93–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., Suarez, E. C., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Lynch, T. R., et al. (2015). Decreased symptoms of depression after mindfulness-based stress reduction: Potential moderating effects of religiosity, spirituality, trait mindfulness, sex, and age. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(3), 166–174. doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0285.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hebert, R., Zdaniuk, B., Schulz, R., & Scheier, M. (2009). Positive and negative religious coping and well-being in women with breast cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(6), 537–545.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hood, R. W., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. (1996). The psychology of religion. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  25. Jadoon, N. A., Munir, W., Shahzad, M. A., & Choudhry, Z. S. (2010). Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: A cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer, 10, 594.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jenkins, R. A., & Pargament, K. I. (1995). Religion and spirituality as resources for coping with cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 13, 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jimmie, C. H., & Julia, H. R. (1989). Handbook of psychooncology: Psychological care of the patient with cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jin, S. H., & Jun, T. (2014). Prevalence of anxiety and depression and their risk factors in Chinese cancer patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 22(2), 453–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jørgensen, L., Laursen, B. S., Garne, J. P., Sherman, K. A., & Søgaard, M. (2016). Prevalence and predictors of distress in women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer: A cohort study. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2016.01.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kappeli, S. (2000). Between suffering and redemption. Religious motives in Jewish and Christian cancer patients’ coping. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 14, 82–88.Google Scholar
  31. Koenig, H. G., & Büssing, A. (2010). The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A five-item measure for use in epidemiological studies. Religions, 1, 78–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koenig, H. G., Cohen, H. J., Blazer, D. G., Pieper, C., Meador, K. G., Shelp, F., et al. (1992). Religious coping and depression among elderly, hospitalized medically ill men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1693–1700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., & Peterson, B. L. (1998a). Religiosity and remission of depression in medically ill older patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 536–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., George, L. K., Blazer, D. G., Larson, D. B., & Landerman, L. R. (1997). Modeling the cross-sectional relationships between religion, physical health, social support, and depressive symptoms. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5, 131–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Koenig, H. G., Larson, D. B., & Durham, N. C. (1998b). Use of hospital services, religious attendance and religious affiliation. Southern Medical Journal, 91, 925–932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Low, C. A., Stanton, A. L., Thompson, N., Kwan, L., & Ganz, P. A. (2006). Contextual life stress and coping strategies as predictors of adjustment to breast cancer survivorship. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 235–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lueboonthavatchai, P. (2007). Prevalence and psychosocial factors of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 90(10), 2164–2174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Lutgendorf, S. K., Anderson, B., Ullrich, P., Johnsenet, E. L., Buller, R. E., Sood, A. K., et al. (2002). Quality of life and mood in women with gynecologic cancer: A one year prospective study. Cancer, 94, 131–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mausbach, B. T., Schwab, R. B., & Irwin, S. A. (2015). Depression as a predictor of adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) in women with breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 152, 239–246.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. McBride, J. L., Arthur, G., Brooks, R., & Pilkington, L. (1998). The relationship between a patient’s spirituality and health experiences. Family Medicine, 30, 122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & Thoresen, C. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 19, 211–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Merriam, S., & Muhamad, M. (2013). Roles traditional healers play in cancer treatment in Malaysia: Implications for health promotion and education. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14, 3593–3601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mols, F., Korfage, I. J., Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., Kil, P. J. M., Coebergh, J. W. W., Essink-Bot, M. L., et al. (2009). Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems among long-term prostate cancer survivors: A population-based study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 73(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Musick, M. A., Koeing, H. G., Larson, B., & Matthews, D. (1998). Religion and spiritual beliefs. In J. Holland (Ed.), Psycho-oncology (pp. 780–789). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Ng, C. G., Mohamed, S., Tai, Y. W., Haris, A., Zainal, N. Z., & Sulaiman, A. H. (2014). Comparison of psychotropic prescriptions between oncology and cardiology inpatients: Result from a pharmacy database in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(10), 4261–4264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nordin, K., Glimelius, B., Påhlman, L., & Sjödén, P. O. (1996). Anxiety, depression and worry in gastrointestinal cancer patients attending medical follow-up control visits. Acta Oncologica, 35(4), 411–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Nurasikin, M. S., Aini, A., Aida Syarinaz, A. A., & Ng, C. G. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Malay version of Duke University Religion Index (DUREL-M) among a group of nursing student. MJP, 19(2), 68–72.Google Scholar
  49. Nurasikin, M. S., Khatijah, L. A., Aini, A., Ramli, A., Aida, S. A., Zainal, N. Z., et al. (2012). Religiousness, religious coping methods and distress level among psychiatric patients in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59(4), 332–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Olson, M. M., Trevino, D. B., Geske, J. A., & Vanderpool, H. (2012). Religious coping and mental health outcomes: An exploratory study of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. Explore (NY), 8, 172–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pargament, K. I., Ensing, K. F., Olsen, H., Reilly, B., van Haitsma, K., & Warren, R. (1990). God help me: (I): Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 798–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pargament, K. I., Kennell, J., Hathaway, W., Grevengoed, N., Newman, J., & Jones, W. (1998a). Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 27, 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. M. (2000). The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(4), 519–543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pargament, K. I., Zinnbauer, B. J., Scott, A. B., Butter, E. M., Zerowin, J., & Stanik, P. (1998b). Red flags and religious coping: Identifying some religious warning signs among people in crisis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(1), 77–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rand, K. L., Cripe, L. D., Monahan, P. O., Tong, Y., Schmidt, K., & Rawl, S. M. (2011). Illness appraisal, religious coping, and psychological responses in men with advanced cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer, 20(8), 1719–1728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Rohani, C., Abedi, H. A., Omranipour, R., & Langius-Eklöf, A. (2015). Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: A prospective study with comparative design. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13, 40. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0229-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Ronneberg, C. R., Miller, E. A., Dugan, E., & Porell, F. (2016). The protective effects of religiosity on depression: A 2-year prospective study. Gerontologist, 56(3), 421–431. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnu073.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Şahin, Z. A., Tan, M., & Polat, H. (2013). Hopelessness, depression and social support with end of life turkish cancer patients. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(5), 2823–2828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Salleh, H. M., Shaharom M. H., Nor M. I. M., Shamsuddin, K., Kassim, K., Ismail, R., et al. (1999). Hatta Islamic religiosity scale 1996 (HIRS96)—A reliability and validity study. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry, 7(1), 5–14.Google Scholar
  60. Sherman, A. C., Simonton, S., Latif, U., Spohn, R., & Tricot, G. (2005). Religious struggle and religious comfort in response to illness: Health outcomes among stem cell transplant patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 359–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Siegel, K., Anderman, S. J., & Scrimshaw, E. W. (2001). Religion and coping with health related stress. Psychology and Health, 16, 631–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Singer, S., Kuhnt, S., Gotze, H., Hauss, J., Hinz, A., Liebmann, A., et al. (2009). Hospital anxiety and depression scale cutoff scores for cancer patients in acute care. British Journal of Cancer, 100, 908–912.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Soo, H. K., Byung, H. S., & Sook, Y. H. (2008). Fatigue and depression in disease-free breast cancer survivors: Prevalence, correlates, and association with quality of life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 35, 644–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Stanton, L. A., Danoff-burg, S., & Huggins, M. E. (2002). The first year after breast cancer diagnosis: Hope and coping strategies as predictors of adjustment. Psycho-Oncology, 11(2), 93–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Tarakeshwar, N., Vanderwerker, L. C., Paulk, E., Pearce, M. J., Kasl, S. V., & Prigerson, H. G. (2006). Religious coping is associated with the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. Journla of Palliative Medicine, 9(3), 646–657.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Taylor, E. J., Outlaw, F. H., Bernardo, T. R., & Roy, A. (1999). Spiritual conflicts associated with praying about cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 8, 386–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Thuné-Boyle, I. C., Stygall, J. A., Keshtgar, M. R., & Newman, S. P. (2006). Do religious/spiritual coping strategies affect illness adjustment in patients with cancer? A Systematic Review of the Literature, 63(1), 151–164.Google Scholar
  69. Tix, A. P., & Frazier, P. A. (1998). The use of religious coping during stressful life events. Main effects, moderation, and mediation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 411–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Trevino, K. M., Archambault, E., Schuster, J., Richardson, P., & Moye, J. (2012). Religious coping and psychological distress in military veteran cancer survivors. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(1), 87–98. doi: 10.1007/s10943-011-9526-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Trevino, K. M., Balboni, M., Zollfrank, A., Balboni, T., & Prigerson, H. G. (2014). Negative religious coping as a correlate of suicidal ideation in patients with advanced cancer. Psychooncology, 23(8), 936–945. doi: 10.1002/pon.3505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Vahdaninia, M., Omidvari, S., & Montazeri, A. (2009). What do predict anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients?. A follow-up study: Social Psychiatry and Psycgiatric Epidemiology. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0068-7.Google Scholar
  73. Yangarber-Hicks, N. (2004). Religious coping styles and recovery from serious mental illness. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32, 105–117.Google Scholar
  74. Yusoff, N., Low, W. Y., & Yip, C. H. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Malay version of Brief COPE Scale: A study on malaysian women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. MJP, 18(1), 27–35.Google Scholar
  75. Yusoff, N., Low, W. Y., & Yip, C. H. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Malay version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: A study of husbands of breast cancer patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12, 915–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Zainal, N. Z., Nik-Jaafarm, N. R., Baharudin, A., Sabki, Z. A., & Ng, C. G. (2013). Prevalence of depression in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of observational studies. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(4), 2649–2656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Zamanian, H., Eftekhar-Ardebili, H., Eftekhar-Ardebili, M., Shojaeizadeh, D., Nedjat, S., Taheri-Kharameh, Z., et al. (2015). Religious coping and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 16(17), 7721–7725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 67, 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zwingmann, C., Wirtz, M., Müller, C., Körber, J., & Murken, S. (2006). Positive and negative religious coping in German breast cancer patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2, 533–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guan Chong Ng
    • 1
  • Salina Mohamed
    • 2
  • Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman
    • 1
  • Nor Zuraida Zainal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Psychological & Behavioural Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Teknologi MARAKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations