Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1574–1584 | Cite as

Gender Differences in the Association Between Religion/Spirituality and Simultaneous Polysubstance Use (SPU)

  • Abenaa B. Acheampong
  • Sonam Lasopa
  • Catherine W. Striley
  • Linda B. Cottler
Original Paper

Abstract

While religion/spirituality strongly protects against drug use (Cheney et al. in J Drug Issues 44(1):94–113, 2014), little is known about gender differences in the association of religion/spirituality on simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among those who use prescription opioids. Data come from a community-based study that recruited community members from the St Louis area (N = 632). Participants were asked whether they used prescription opioids when not prescribed for them or in ways other than prescribed in the past 12 months. Religion/spirituality was categorized as high, medium, or low based on personal views on the importance of religion and spirituality, attendance at religious services, and advice seeking from religious leaders. SPU was defined as non-medical use of opioids simultaneously with use of cocaine, alcohol, ecstasy, or marijuana. Multivariate logistic regression determined the association between religion/spirituality, demographic variables, and SPU. Men with high levels of religion/spirituality had 63 % decreased odds of SPU compared with men with low levels. Other variables associated with SPU in men were four or more arrests (AOR 2.21), multiple sex partners (AOR 2.11), and opioid use without a prescription (AOR 3.04). Women with high or medium levels of religion/spirituality had 58 and 62 % decreased odds of SPU compared with women with low levels. Variables that predicted SPU in women also included 4+ arrests (AOR 5.00) and never being married (AOR 2.13). Being African-American was associated with decreased odds of SPU in women (AOR 0.32). Overall, a high level of religion/spirituality was associated with lower odds of SPU. Gender differences in this association were evident, whereas women with even a medium level of religion/spirituality had significantly decreased odds of SPU. Future drug prevention and interventions should consider the relevance of religion/spirituality in SPU.

Keywords

Religion and spirituality Prescription opioids Simultaneous polysubstance use 

References

  1. Benotsch, E. G., Koester, S., Luckman, D., Martin, A. M., & Cejka, A. (2011). Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults. Addictive Behaviors, 36(1/2), 152–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benotsch, E. G., Zimmerman, R., Cathers, L., McNulty, S., Pierce, J., Heck, T., et al. (2013). Non-medical use of prescription drugs, polysubstance use, and mental health in transgender adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1/2), 391–394. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Billioux, V. G., Sherman, S. G., & Latkin, C. (2014). Religiosity and HIV-related drug risk behavior: A multidimensional assessment of individuals from communities with high rates of drug use. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(1), 37–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Boden, J. M., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. (2006). Illicit drug use and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(2), 156–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassidy, T. A., DasMahapatra, P., Black, R. A., Wieman, M. S., & Butler, S. F. (2014). Changes in prevalence of prescription opioid abuse after introduction of an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation. Pain Medicine, 15(3), 440–451. doi:10.1111/pme.12295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheney, A. M., Curran, G. M., Booth, B. M., Sullivan, S. D., Stewart, K. E., & Borders, T. F. (2014). The religious and spiritual dimensions of cutting down and stopping cocaine use a qualitative exploration among African Americans in the south. Journal of Drug Issues, 44(1), 94–113.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Chorba, T., Fletcher, F., Hennessey, K., Kroeger, K., Lansky, A., Leichliter, J., et al. (2012). Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: Summary guidance from CDC and the US Department of Health and Human Services. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  8. Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. G. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(6), 1278–1290. doi:10.1037/a0024402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dyer, T. P., Regan, R., Wilton, L., Harawa, N. T., Wang, L., & Shoptaw, S. (2013). Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and HIV-related sexual risk behavior between Black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities. Journal of Urban Health, 90(6), 1181–1193.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Elkonin, D., Brown, O., & Naicker, S. (2014). Religion, spirituality and therapy: Implications for training. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(1), 119–134. doi:10.1007/s10943-012-9607-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gmel, G., Mohler-Kuo, M., Dermota, P., Gaume, J., Bertholet, N., Daeppen, J., et al. (2013). Religion is good, belief is better: Religion, religiosity, and substance use among young Swiss men. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(12), 1085–1098. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.799017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haggerty, K. P., Skinner, M. L., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R. D., & Crutchfield, R. D. (2015). Long-term effects of staying connected with your teen® on drug use frequency at age 20. Prevention Science, 16(4), 538–549.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Harner, H. M., & Riley, S. (2013). The impact of incarceration on women’s mental health responses from women in a maximum-security prison. Qualitative Health Research, 23(1), 26–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hobern, K. (2014). Religion in sexual health: A staff perspective. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(2), 461–468. doi:10.1007/s10943-012-9650-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Islam, M. M., Topp, L., Conigrave, K. M., Haber, P. S., White, A., & Day, C. A. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behaviours and perceived barriers to safe sex among drug users. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(4), 311–315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kerridge, B. T., Saha, T. D., Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., Jung, J., Ruan, W. J., et al. (2015). Gender and nonmedical prescription opioid use and DSM-5 nonmedical prescription opioid use disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 156, 47–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Luquis, R., Brelsford, G., & Rojas-Guyler, L. (2012). Religiosity, spirituality, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors among college students. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(3), 601–614. doi:10.1007/s10943-011-9527-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Maggs, J. L., Staff, J., Kloska, D. D., Patrick, M. E., O’Malley, P. M., & Schulenberg, J. (2015). Predicting young adult degree attainment by late adolescent marijuana use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(2), 205–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Moore, E., Berkley-Patton, J., & Hawes, S. (2013). Religiosity, alcohol use, and sex behaviors among college student-athletes. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 930–940. doi:10.1007/s10943-011-9543-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Moscati, A., & Mezuk, B. (2014). Losing faith and finding religion: Religiosity over the life course and substance use and abuse. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 136, 127–134. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.018. Epub 2014 Jan 6.
  21. Moss, H., Chen, C. M., & Yi, H. (2014). Early adolescent patterns of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana polysubstance use and young adult substance use outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Newcomb, M. E., Birkett, M., Corliss, H. L., & Mustanski, B. (2014). Sexual orientation, gender, and racial differences in illicit drug use in a sample of US high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2), 304–310. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301702.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. O’brien, L., Denny, S., Clark, T., Flemming, T., Teevale, T., & Robinsom, E. (2013). The impact of religion and spirituality on the risk behaviours of young people in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Youth Studies Australia, 32(4), 25–37.Google Scholar
  24. Olthius, J. V., Darredeau, C., & Barrett, S. P. (2013). Substance use initiation: The role of simultaneous polysubstance use. Drug & Alcohol Review, 32(1), 67–71. doi:10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00470.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Puffer, E., Skalski, L., & Meade, C. (2012). Changes in religious coping and relapse to drug use among opioid-dependent patients following inpatient detoxification. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(4), 1226–1238. doi:10.1007/s10943-010-9418-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Reid-Arndt, S. A., Smith, M. L., Yoon, D., & Johnstone, B. (2011). Gender differences in spiritual experiences, religious practices, and congregational support for individuals with significant health conditions. Journal of Religion, Disability & Health, 15(2), 175–196. doi:10.1080/15228967.2011.566792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shacham, E., & Cottler, L. (2010). Sexual behaviors among club drug users: Prevalence and reliability. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(6), 1331–1341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Simpson, D. B., Cloud, D. S., Newman, J. L., & Fuqua, D. R. (2008). Sex and gender differences in religiousness and spirituality. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 36(1), 42–52.Google Scholar
  29. Sofuoglu, M., DeVito, E. E., Waters, A. J., & Carroll, K. M. (2013). Cognitive enhancement as a treatment for drug addictions. Neuropharmacology, 64, 452–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Staton-Tindall, M., Oser, C. B., Duvall, J. L., Havens, J. R., Webster, J., Leukefeld, C. G., et al. (2008). Male and female stimulant use among rural kentuckians: The contribution of spirituality and religiosity. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(3), 863–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Trenz, R. C., Scherer, M., Duncan, A., Harrell, P. T., Moleko, A., & Latimer, W. W. (2013). Latent class analysis of polysubstance use, sexual risk behaviors, and infectious disease among South African drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 441–448. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Valdiserri, R., Khalsa, J., Dan, C., Holmberg, S., Zibbell, J., Holtzman, D., et al. (2014). Confronting the emerging epidemic of HCV infection among young injection drug users. American Journal of Public Health, 104(5), 816–821. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301812.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilkerson, J. J., Smolensk, D., Brady, S., & Rosser, B. B. (2013). Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in online samples of men who have sex with men. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 610–621. doi:10.1007/s10943-012-9594-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Wong, C. F., Silva, K., Kecojevic, A., Schrager, S. M., Bloom, J. J., Iverson, E., et al. (2013). Coping and emotion regulation profiles as predictors of nonmedical prescription drug and illicit drug use among high-risk young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1), 165–171.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abenaa B. Acheampong
    • 1
  • Sonam Lasopa
    • 1
  • Catherine W. Striley
    • 1
  • Linda B. Cottler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations