Masturbation: Scientific Evidence and Islam’s View

Original Paper
  • 1k Downloads

Abstract

Masturbation is the stimulation of sexual organs usually to the point of orgasm with an essential autoerotic component. Due to the high prevalence of this sexual behavior, it was and still is a matter of debate if masturbation is a normal action without any side effects and even if it is advantageous or it is associated with side effects necessitating public education how to avoid it. In addition, it is a common question if masturbation is religiously lawful or not. In this study, I assess the results of scientific studies about this sexual behavior and also shed some light on the Islam’s view about it.

Keywords

Masturbation Body Psyche Islam 

References

  1. Al Amoli, M. (1971). Wasail al-Shi’a. Beirut.Google Scholar
  2. Bowins, B. (2004). Psychological defense mechanisms: A new perspective. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 64, 1–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brody, S. (2006). Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity. Biological Psychology, 71, 214–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brody, S. (2010). The relative health benefits of different sexual activities. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7, 1336–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brody, S., & Costa, R. M. (2008). Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 1167–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brody, S., & Costa, R. M. (2009). Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6, 1947–1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brody, S., & Costa, R. M. (2012). Sexual satisfaction and health are positively associated with penile-vaginal intercourse but not other sexual activities. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 6–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brody, S., Costa, R. M., & Hess, U. (2012). Immature psychological defense mechanisms and the misrepresentations of some sex researchers. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 27, 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brody, S., & Kruger, T. H. (2006). The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety. Biological Psychology, 71, 312–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calabro, R. S., Gali, A., Marino, S., & Bramanti, P. (2012). Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 737–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, L., & Marshall, T. (2011). Anxious attachment and relationship processes: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Personality, 79, 1219–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohan, C. L., & Kleinbaum, S. (2004). Toward a greater understanding of the cohabitation effect: Premarital cohabitation and marital communication. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 180–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corona, G., Ricca, V., Boddi, V., Bandini, E., Lotti, F., Fisher, A. D., et al. (2010). Autoeroticism, mental health, and organic disturbances in patients with erectile dysfunction. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7, 182–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa, R. M. (2012). Masturbation is related to psychopathology and prostate dysfunction: Comment on Quinsey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 539–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa, R. M., & Brody, S. (2007). Women’s relationship quality is associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm and frequency. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 33, 319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costa, R. M., & Brody, S. (2010). Immature defense mechanisms are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency and greater alcohol consumption before sex. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7, 775–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, R. M., & Brody, S. (2011). Anxious and avoidant attachment, vibrator use, anal sex, and impaired vaginal orgasm. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8, 2493–2500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cyranowski, J. M., Bromberger, J., Youk, A., Matthews, K., Kravitz, H. M., & Powell, L. H. (2004). Lifetime depression history and sexual function in women at midlife. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dimitropoulou, P., Lophatananon, A., Easton, D., Pocock, R., Dearnaley, D. P., Guy, M., et al. (2009). Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age. BJU International, 103, 178–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Drabick, J. J., Gambel, J. M., & Mackey, J. F. (1997). Prostatodynia in United Nations peacekeeping forces in Haiti. Military Medicine, 162, 380–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Frohlich, P., & Meston, C. (2002). Sexual functioning and self-reported depressive symptoms among college women. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 39, 321–325.Google Scholar
  22. Ghadiri Sufi, F., & Khameneh, S. (2005). The effects of Ramadan fasting on sexual desire: Hormonal effects or brain cortex. Journal Of Guilan University Of Medical Sciences, 56, 33–41.Google Scholar
  23. Ghiya, B. C., Mehta, R. D., & Bumb, R. A. (2008). Masturbation: Can it be urticarogenic? Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 74, 384–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Husted, J. R., & Edwards, A. E. (1976). Personality correlates of male sexual arousal and behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khan, M. M. (1979). The translation of the meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari: Arabic-English. Al Madinato al Monawart: Al Maktabat al Salafiat.Google Scholar
  26. Komisaruk, B. R., & Whipple, B. (1998). Love as sensory stimulation: Physiological consequences of its deprivation and expression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 927–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Makarem Shirazi, N. (1971). Sexual problems of the youth. Qom: Nasl-e-Javan Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Matthews, K. A., Salomon, K., Brady, S. S., & Allen, M. T. (2003). Cardiovascular reactivity to stress predicts future blood pressure in adolescence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 410–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matthews, K. A., Woodall, K. L., & Allen, M. T. (1993). Cardiovascular reactivity to stress predicts future blood pressure status. Hypertension, 22, 479–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mesbahzadeh, B., Ghiravani, Z., & Mehrjoofard, H. (2005). Effect of Ramadan fasting on secretion of sex hormones in healthy single males. East Mediterr Health Journal, 11, 1120–1123.Google Scholar
  31. Paik, A. (2011). Adolescent sexuality and the risk of marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 472–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rizvi, S. S. A. (1975). Your questions answered. Dar es Salaam: Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania.Google Scholar
  33. Rizvi, S. M. (1990). Marriage and morals in Islam. Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  34. Sassler, S. (2004). The process of entering into cohabiting unions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 491–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sassler, S., Addo, F. R., & Lichter, D. T. (2012). The tempo of sexual activity and later relationship quality. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 708–725.Google Scholar
  36. Shelton, J. D. (2010). Masturbation: Breaking the silence. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. WHO. (2011a). Global status report on alcohol and health. Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  38. WHO. (2011b). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  39. Willoughby, B. J., Carroll J. S. &, Busby D. M. (2012) Differing relationship outcomes when sex happens before, on, or after first dates. J Sex Res.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations